Many organisms living in the oceans or in salt lakes are hyporegulators, meaning that they maintain their body fluids hypo-osmotically to the external medium. Marine fish hyporegulate by drinking the external medium and transporting sodium and chloride ions outward across the gills. Marine reptiles and birds use salt glands in the head to transport hyperosmotic fluids outward. Marine mammals are able to produce hyperosmotic urine in the kidneys. Insects use portions of the hindgut to actively transport ions out of their hemolymph. Brine shrimp are the champion hyporegulators of the animal kingdom. They use salt glands to rid their bodies of the salts accumulated in waters many times more concentrated than the oceans.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.