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Animal Osmoregulation$
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Timothy J. Bradley

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780198569961

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569961.001.0001

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Hyporegulators Hyporegulators

Hyporegulators Hyporegulators

(p.72) 6 Hyporegulators
Animal Osmoregulation

Timothy J. Bradley

Oxford University Press

Many organisms living in the oceans or in salt lakes are hyporegulators, meaning that they maintain their body fluids hypo-osmotically to the external medium. Marine fish hyporegulate by drinking the external medium and transporting sodium and chloride ions outward across the gills. Marine reptiles and birds use salt glands in the head to transport hyperosmotic fluids outward. Marine mammals are able to produce hyperosmotic urine in the kidneys. Insects use portions of the hindgut to actively transport ions out of their hemolymph. Brine shrimp are the champion hyporegulators of the animal kingdom. They use salt glands to rid their bodies of the salts accumulated in waters many times more concentrated than the oceans.

Keywords:   hyporegulation, marine fish, marine reptiles, marine mammals, brine shrimp, saltwater insects, salt glands

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