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Animal Osmoregulation$
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Timothy J. Bradley

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780198569961

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569961.001.0001

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Transport of ions and water in epithelia: molecular insights Transport of ions and water in epithelia: molecular insights

Transport of ions and water in epithelia: molecular insights Transport of ions and water in epithelia: molecular insights

Chapter:
(p.146) 10 Transport of ions and water in epithelia: molecular insights
Source:
Animal Osmoregulation
Author(s):

Timothy J. Bradley

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569961.003.0010

Three epithelia are examined as a means of exploring molecular mechanisms of fluid and ion transport. The Malpighian tubules of insects are the site of urine production and can transport a variety of ions and organic compounds. The energy for these processes is generated by a hydrogen ATPase at the apical membrane while a Na+/K+ ATPase energizes the basal surface. The chloride cells of freshwater animals are the sites of active uptake of sodium and chloride ions from dilute media. These cells are also powered by hydrogen and Na+/K+ ATPases. Unlike the Malpighian tubules that transport isoosmotic fluid in an apical direction, chloride cells transport ions in a basal direction with little water following. The collecting tubules of mammalian kidneys can vary their osmotic permeability through the insertion and removal of aquaporin molecules. These epithelia incorporate many of the physiological specializations employed by animals to move fluid, transport ions, and modify osmotic permeability.

Keywords:   epithelia, ion transport, ATPase, aquaporin, co-transport, Malpighian tubules, chloride cells, collecting duct

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