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SelectionThe Mechanism of Evolution$
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Graham Bell

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198569725

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.001.0001

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Adaptive radiation: diversity and specialization

Adaptive radiation: diversity and specialization

(p.265) CHAPTER 8 Adaptive radiation: diversity and specialization

Graham Bell

Oxford University Press

Selection in complex and structured environments is likely to cause the divergence of differently adapted lines. This will lead to a diverse array of specialized types, or to one or a few broad generalists, or to some intermediate situation. The first section in this chapter is called GxE and details the ecogenetic landscape; the magnitude of GxE; inconsistency and responsiveness; the genetic correlation in relation to environmental variance; the outcome of selection in different environments; stability and responsiveness; and the evolution of stability and responsiveness. The second section is about specialization and generalization, and details niche separation; the cost of adaptation; divergent specialization; sources of antagonism: functional interference; sources of antagonism: mutational degradation; and the consequences of interference and degradation. It also gives an experimental adaptive radiation regarding pseudomonas and an historical adaptive radiation concerning anolis. The third section called Opportunities in space, obligations in time, explains simple environments; complex environments; the cost of adaptation in complex environments; structured environments; the outcome of selection in structured environments; fluctuating fitness; and the outcome of selection in variable environments. The final section is called Local adaptation and details the precision of local adaptation and gives reciprocal transplant experiments.

Keywords:   genotype-environment interaction, divergent selection, responsiveness plasticity, niche separation, functional interference, mutational degradation, complex environment, structured environment, variable environment, local adaptation

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