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SelectionThe Mechanism of Evolution$
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Graham Bell

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198569725

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569725.001.0001

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Natural selection in open populations

Natural selection in open populations

(p.222) CHAPTER 7 Natural selection in open populations

Graham Bell

Oxford University Press

Natural selection can be observed and measured in natural populations. This chapter argues that it is commonplace, strong, fluctuating, and oligogenic. The first section here is called Fitness in natural populations and describes the variance of fitness; immigration pressure; local selection coefficients; and the field gradient. The next section, the Phenotypic selection, details the environmental variance of fitness; the cost of selection; the lack of response: genostasis; field studies of selection in Cepaea; selection coefficients; heritability; the Secondary Theorem of Natural Selection; selection gradients; stabilizing selection; fluctuating selection; historical change; multiscale temporal variation; and genetic revolutions. The third section is called Selection experiments in the field and details habitat modification and the Rothamsted Park Grass Experiment. It then gives an introduction to guppies in Trinidad. The fourth section is called Adaptation to the humanized landscape and details the unexpected consequences of harvesting; the unintended consequences of pollution in terms of mining; the unintended consequences of pollution from smoke; the unintended consequences of pollution from carbon dioxide; the unwelcome effects of eradication concerning herbicides and pesticide; the unwelcome consequences of eradication from antibiotics; and human evolution in the humanized environment. Finally, the section called The ghost of selection past details an analysis of allele frequencies and an analysis of divergence.

Keywords:   fitness, genostasis, heritability, fluctuating selection, pollution, fisheries, industrial melanism, herbicides, Biston, Cepaea

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