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Cognitive NeurologyA clinical textbook$
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Stefano Cappa, Jubin Abutalebi, Jean-Francois Demonet, Paul Fletcher, and Peter Garrard

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780198569275

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198569275.001.0001

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Cognitive and behavioural disorders following traumatic brain injury

Cognitive and behavioural disorders following traumatic brain injury

(p.349) Chapter 16 Cognitive and behavioural disorders following traumatic brain injury
Cognitive Neurology

Anna Mazzucchi

Oxford University Press

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) could be defined as an insult to the brain caused by an external force producing altered states of consciousness that result in impaired cognitive or physical functions. TBI, especially if severe, can produce structural and functional modifications of the brain, which in turn can result in a highly variable and complex interaction of symptoms depending on the motor, sensory, cognitive, emotional, behavioural, and autonomic spheres. The brain during traumatic collision is prone to insults due to a complex combination of acceleration and deceleration and translation and rotation forces causing contusions, diffuse axonal injuries (DAI), and haemorrhages. Moreover, damages to neurons may occur as a consequence of biochemical modifications as a consequence of a drop in the levels of oxygen and glucose, and, finally, because of blood hypotension or increased intracranial pressure. This complex combination of and interaction among insults tends to produce a heterogeneous association of diffused and focalized damages that affect every possible area of the brain: cortical, subcortical, and midbrain. In addition, mild TBI can produce cerebral damage whose severity is directly correlated with the length of loss of consciousness and of post-traumatic amnesia

Keywords:   traumatic brain injury, autonomic spheres, traumatic collision, diffuse axonal injuries, haemorrhage, blood hypotension

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