Conway Lloyd Morgan in Britain and James Mark Baldwin in the USA, near contemporaries of one another, shared several other characteristics. Each had a philosophical sophistication unusual amongst the evolutionists and most psychologists of their day. Each was a pioneer, if in different ways. Morgan was one of the first experimental comparative psychologists; Baldwin made seminal contributions in developmental psychology, being the first to understand that human cognitive development proceeds through a series of stages, each of which is qualitatively different from those preceding it. Both wrote a form of memetics, the notion that ideas are the cultural analogues of genes that evolve by way of selection, some 70 and more years before Dawkins' The Selfish Gene. Both also anticipated major ways of advancing thinking as to how evolution and learning may be linked to one another. It is the latter, of course, which is the primary concern of this chapter.
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