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Concepts in Spin Electronics$
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Sadamichi Maekawa

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780198568216

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568216.001.0001

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Bipolar spintronics

Bipolar spintronics

Chapter:
(p.43) 2 Bipolar spintronics
Source:
Concepts in Spin Electronics
Author(s):

Igor Žutić

Jaroslav Fabian

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198568216.003.0002

By incorporating spin-dependent properties and magnetism in semiconductor structures, new applications can be considered which go beyond magnetoresistive effects based on metallic systems. Notwithstanding the prospects for spin/magnetism-enhanced logic in semiconductors, many important theoretical, experimental, and materials challenges remain. This chapter discusses the challenge for realizing a particular class of applications: the proposal here is for bipolar spintronic devices in which carriers of both polarities (electrons and holes) contribute to spin-charge coupling. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics, large deviations from local charge neutrality, as well as inhomogeneous built-in and applied fields, all have important implications on the bipolar transport and potential spin-based logic applications. This chapter formulates the theoretical framework for bipolar spin-polarized transport, and describes the novel effects in two- and three-terminal structures which arise from the interplay between nonequilibrium spin and equilibrium magnetization.

Keywords:   spin-polarized transport, spin injection, spin relaxation, spin polarization, magnetic semiconductors, p-n junctions, spin transistors, spin logic, spin battery, spin-voltaic effect

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