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Cognitive Processes in Eye Guidance$
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Geoffrey Underwood

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780198566816

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566816.001.0001

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Perception in chess: Evidence from eye movements

Perception in chess: Evidence from eye movements

(p.325) 14 Perception in chess: Evidence from eye movements
Cognitive Processes in Eye Guidance

Eyal M. Reingold

Neil Charness

Oxford University Press

This chapter demonstrates dramatically larger visual spans for experts while processing structured, but not random, chess positions. In addition, consistent with the encoding of chunks rather than individual pieces, experts made fewer fixations, and fixated between related pieces, rather than on pieces. The chapter also shows chess piece saliency influenced the selection of experts' saccadic endpoints, and that experts completed the perceptual encoding phase and started the problem-solving phase sooner than intermediates. Finally, it shows that experts, but not less-skilled players, extract chess relations using automatic and parallel procedures.

Keywords:   chess, perception, eye movements, fixations, saccadic endpoints, encoding phase

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