This introductory chapter provides definitions and explains the scope of the book. It explains how conclusions are drawn from trees, how they are used to build these trees, why gametes are included, and the limitations of the topics considered. Previously, there have been many approaches to explain the evolution of organ systems, but these were restricted to particular systems. Other approaches have reconstructed phylogeny derived from the one organ system instead of reconstructing the evolution of this organ system from a tree based on all available data.
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