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Measuring the Mind: Speed, control, and age$
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John Duncan, Louise Phillips, and Peter McLeod

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780198566427

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566427.001.0001

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On reducing age-related declines in memory and executive control

On reducing age-related declines in memory and executive control

Chapter:
(p.275) Chapter 11 On reducing age-related declines in memory and executive control
Source:
Measuring the Mind: Speed, control, and age
Author(s):

Fergus I. M. Craik

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566427.003.0011

Cognitive abilities depend on the brain, which becomes less efficient as people age. This chapter notes two major factors that make the picture less negative. The first is that age-related declines are highly task dependent, and performance on some tasks holds up well. The second is that certain manipulations and conditions can serve to counteract the typical effects of ageing. The discussion describes some experiments that address this second factor. In the area of memory, the studies show that relatedness benefits older adults differentially; strategy instructions also boost recall in older adults, but at considerable cost in processing resources. Context reinstatement is a further factor that boosts recognition memory in older adults. The chapter also describes recent work showing that bilingualism in older adults is associated with higher levels of executive control.

Keywords:   age-related declines, cognitive performance, ageing, memory, context reinstatement, executive control, bilingualism

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