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The Orbitofrontal Cortex$
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David Zald and Scott Rauch

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780198565741

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198565741.001.0001

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Frontotemporal dementia and the orbitofrontal cortex

Frontotemporal dementia and the orbitofrontal cortex

(p.621) Chapter 24 Frontotemporal dementia and the orbitofrontal cortex
The Orbitofrontal Cortex

Po H. Lu

Negar Khanlou

Jeffrey L. Cummings

Oxford University Press

Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) manifest severe behavioral and personality alterations associated with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. This chapter provides a review of the clinical features, neuropathology, neuroimaging, genetics, and neuropsychology of FTD as well as presenting two prototypical cases that provide a clinical picture of the disorder. Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have identified the OFC as the brain region most prominently involved in the frontal-variant of FTD. The neuroanatomy, circuitry, and functions of the OFC are summarized, emphasizing its role in emotional and social cognition. Theories involving deficits in recognition of emotional expression, decision-making, and theory of mind have been proposed to explain the mechanism underlying the clinical expression of FTD, and the OFC is intimately involved in studies examining the neural basis underlying these deficits.

Keywords:   frontotemporal dementia, neuroimaging, neuropathology, neuropsychology, personality, emotion, social, decision making

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