This chapter considers the diffusion equation: an implicit in time discretization leads to the Helmholtz equation. Both the temporal discretization and eigenspectra of second-order operators that dictate time-step restrictions are discussed. Appropriate preconditioning techniques for inversion of the stiffness matrix, non-smooth solutions due to geometric singularities, and recent advances in three-dimensional domains are discussed. The exercises at the end of the chapter build on the exercises of Chapters 3 and 4 to implement a two-dimensional standard Galerkin hp solution to the Helmholtz problem.
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