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Avoiding AttackThe Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry$
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Graeme D. Ruxton, Tom N. Sherratt, and Michael P. Speed

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780198528609

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528609.001.0001

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Secondary defences

Secondary defences

(p.51) CHAPTER 5 Secondary defences
Avoiding Attack

Graeme D. Ruxton

Thomas N. Sherratt

Michael P. Speed

Oxford University Press

Secondary defences act after predators have successfully detected and recognized prey; they seek to dissuade the predator from attacking and/or increase the likelihood of the prey surviving the attack. These defences are generally physical (armour, spines, thorns) or chemical (toxins, venom, irritants). This chapter examines on the costs of different defences and how these toxins are likely to impact on the evolution of defences.

Keywords:   toxins, venom, armour, spines, thorns, cost of defences, induced defences

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