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Avoiding AttackThe Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry$
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Graeme D. Ruxton, Tom N. Sherratt, and Michael P. Speed

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780198528609

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528609.001.0001

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Secondary defences

Secondary defences

Chapter:
(p.51) CHAPTER 5 Secondary defences
Source:
Avoiding Attack
Author(s):

Graeme D. Ruxton

Thomas N. Sherratt

Michael P. Speed

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198528609.003.0006

Secondary defences act after predators have successfully detected and recognized prey; they seek to dissuade the predator from attacking and/or increase the likelihood of the prey surviving the attack. These defences are generally physical (armour, spines, thorns) or chemical (toxins, venom, irritants). This chapter examines on the costs of different defences and how these toxins are likely to impact on the evolution of defences.

Keywords:   toxins, venom, armour, spines, thorns, cost of defences, induced defences

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