Compared to other imaging methods, the unique feature of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is the abundance ol parameters that can he exploited for image contrast. These parameters are mostly molecular in nature and are linked to the chemical and physical properties of the sample. Examples of molecular chemical parameters include the chemical shift and the indirect spin-spin coupling. Molecular physical parameters are lineshapes, relaxation times, the self-diffusion coefficient, and the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction. The last of these is the fundamental quantity by which distances can be probed either on a molecular level by the dipole-dipole coupling tensor or on a mesoscopic level by spin diffusion. This chapter discusses NMR image contrast, optimisation of contrast, magnetisation filters, transfer functions and mobility filters, contrast parameters, NMR parameters and material properties, translational diffusion and transport filters, local-field filters, combination filters, morphology filters, multi-quantum filters, homonuclear magnetisation-transfer filters, heteronuclear magnetisation-transfer filters, spectroscopic parameters, multi-dimensional spectroscopy, sample manipulation, temperature variation, magnetic field distortions, contrast agents, and noble gases.
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