Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with spatial resolution, in particular NMR imaging, has been investigated rather early for non-medical applications. Yet the impact of NMR imaging outside the medical field has been far inferior to that in medicine, because the applications are not as well defined and the objects and phenomena suitable for investigation are much more diverse. Like in medicine, useful applications in materials science and other disciplines exploit the two dominant features characteristic to NMR imaging. These are the great number of contrast parameters to visualise features hidden to other forms of analysis and the nondestructiveness which permits changes in the sample properties and various processes to be monitored. This chapter reviews applications of NMR imaging which are perceived significant to materials science. Most of them are investigations of 1H nuclei and can be divided into three categories: fluid matter, soft matter, and hard matter such as polymers. For each category, some representative examples are outlined including oscillating reactions, defects in technical elastomers, green-state ceramics, chemical-shift imaging of plants, and relaxation and spin-diffusion parameter imaging.
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