The pristine host materials of intercalation complexes consist of two-dimensional sheets, successive sheets being linked by van der Waals interactions. Within the sheets, the constituent atoms are covalently bonded and so the hosts are highly anisotropic in structure and properties. The sheets are comparatively easily pried apart, and thus allow interlayer insertion of guest moieties with consequent property changes that can be exploited for a variety of purposes. From the large variety of possible examples, the intercalation complexes of graphite (GICs), (2H)-TaS2, and zirconium phosphates and phosphonates are discussed. Graphite in this context is amphoteric and can intercalate both electron donors (e.g., some of the alkali metals) and electron acceptors (e.g., some of the halogens). Tantalum sulphide is a representative of a large family of transition metal chalcogenides, which intercalate metals and organic guests. Its particular interest lies in the fact that the organic-guest intercalates become superconducting, albeit at very low temperatures. The zirconium phosphates and phosphonates are models for the smectic clays, are ion exchangers, and catalysts.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.