Besides the enormous opportunities offered by spectroscopy and atom interferometry, laser cooling has opened up the possibility of experimentally realizing and manipulating quantum degenerate gases: Bose–Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermionic systems. This chapter starts with an illustration of key experimental techniques, such as magnetic trapping, evaporative cooling, and Feshbach resonances. It then turns to the physics of atomic Bose–Einstein condensates, discussing their superfluid behaviour, their coherence properties, and their application to precise measurements. It also describes the experimental investigation of ultracold Fermi gases and fermionic superfluidity, as well as ongoing research into ultracold polar molecules.
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