- Title Pages
- List of Contributors
- Chapter 1 Musical Predispositions in Infancy: an Update
- Chapter 2 The Quest for Universals in Temporal Processing in Music
- Chapter 3 Mechanisms of Musical Memory in Infancy
- Chapter 4 Music, Cognition, Culture, and Evolution
- Chapter 5 Is Music an Evolutionary Adaptation?
- Chapter 6 The Roots of Musical Variation in Perceptual Similarity and Invariance
- Chapter 7 Tonal Cognition
- Chapter 8 Learning and Perceiving Musical Structures: Further Insights from Artificial Neural Networks
- Chapter 9 Neurobiology of Harmony Perception
- Chapter 10 Intracerebral Evoked Potentials in Pitch Perception Reveal a Functional Asymmetry of Human Auditory Cortex
- Chapter 11 The Neural Processing of Complex Sounds
- Chapter 12 Music and the Neurologist: A Historical Perspective
- Chapter 13 Brain Specialization for Music: New Evidence from Congenital Amusia
- Chapter 14 Cerebral Substrates for Musical Temporal Processes
- Chapter 15 Cerebral Substrates of Musical Imagery
- Chapter 16 Neural Specializations for Tonal Processing
- Chapter 17 Exploring the Functional Neuroanatomy of Music Performance, Perception, and Comprehension
- Chapter 18 Comparison Between Language and Music
- Chapter 19 Musical Sound Processing: EEG and MEG Evidence
- Chapter 20 Processing Emotions Induced by Music
- Chapter 21 A New Approach to the Cognitive Neuroscience of Melody
- Chapter 22 How many Music Centres are in the Brain?
- Chapter 23 Functional Organization and Plasticity of Auditory Cortex
- Chapter 24 The Brain of Musicians
- Chapter 25 Representational Cortex in Musicians
- Chapter 26 The Brain that makes Music and is Changed by it
- Chapter 27 The sounds of Poetry viewed as Music
- Chapter 28 Does Exposure to Music Have Beneficial Side Effects?
- (p.95) Chapter 7 Tonal Cognition
- The Cognitive Neuroscience of Music
Carol L. Krumhansl
- Oxford University Press
This chapter presents a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network model of tonality based on experimentally quantified tonal hierarchies. A toroidal representation of key distances is recovered in which keys are located near their neighbours on the circle of fifths, and both parallel and relative major/minor key pairs are proximal. The map is used to represent dynamic changes in the sense of keys as cues to keys becoming more or less clear and modulations occurring. Two models, one using tone distributions and the other using tone transitions, are proposed for key-finding. The tone transition model takes both pitch and temporal distance between tones into account. Both models produce results highly comparable to those of musically trained listeners, who performed a probe tone task for ten nine-chord sequences. A distributed mapping of tonality is used to visualize activation patterns that change over time. The location and spread of this activation pattern is similar for experimental results and the key-finding model. In general, experimental studies suggest that the sense of tonality undergoes dynamic and subtle changes when a listener hears music.
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