This chapter presents some additional complications that arise in addition to the simple Luttinger liquid theory for one-dimensional systems. Examples of pitfalls into which the bosonization beginners can fall are discussed. This chapter also explores one of the most important consequences of the existence of a lattice, namely the possibility for the electrons to give an insulator driven by the interactions known as the Mott insulator. The discussion focuses on what happens when one breaks the spin rotation invariance in a Luttinger liquid with spin, and considers the logarithmic corrections of correlation functions.
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