This chapter explains bosonization, a useful technique for describing the low-energy properties of one-dimensional systems. Bosonization is introduced by presenting a model on which this method is essentially exact. This allows for the derivation of precise formulas that can be used for other models as well. Bosons are mapped with fermions and the effect of the interactions is examined. A one-dimensional system with spin is also discussed, and renormalization equations for sine-Gordon Hamiltonians are presented and analyzed. Furthermore, the generic phase diagram of a one-dimensional chain is obtained.
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