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The Neurobiology of an Insect Brain$
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Malcolm Burrows

Print publication date: 1996

Print ISBN-13: 9780198523444

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523444.001.0001

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Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones

Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones

Chapter:
(p.168) 5 Neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones
Source:
The Neurobiology of an Insect Brain
Author(s):

Malcolm Burrows

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198523444.003.0005

A neurotransmitter is a messenger released from a neuron at an anatomically specialised junction, which diffuses across a narrow cleft to affect one or sometimes two postsynaptic neurons, a muscle cell, or another effector cell. A neuromodulator is a messenger released from a neuron in the central nervous system, or in the periphery, that affects groups of neurons, or effector cells that have the appropriate receptors. It may not be released at synaptic sites, it often acts through second messengers and can produce long-lasting effects. The release may be local so that only nearby neurons or effectors are influenced, or may be more widespread, which means that the distinction with a neurohormone can become very blurred. A neurohormone is a messenger that is released by neurons into the haemolymph and which may therefore exert its effects on distant peripheral targets. It may differ only in degree from a neuromodulator in the extent of its action.

Keywords:   neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neurohormones, postsynaptic neurons, effector cell, neurohormone

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