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The Neuropsychology of AnxietyAn enquiry into the function of the septo-hippocampal system$
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Jeffrey A. Gray and Neil McNaughton

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780198522713

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001

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Ethology and anxiety

Ethology and anxiety

Chapter:
(p.37) 2 Ethology and anxiety
Source:
The Neuropsychology of Anxiety
Author(s):

Jeffrey A. Gray

Neil McNaughton

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.003.0002

This chapter describes laboratory-based ethological analysis (ethoexperimental analysis) and ethopharmacological analysis of defensive disorders. Robert and Caroline Blanchard have shown fear and anxiety to be distinct classes of internal state linked to different classes of external behaviour, with the latter but not the former sensitive to anti-anxiety drugs. This distinction is attributed to ‘defensive direction’: fear allows freezing, fight, flight and active avoidance; anxiety allows approach to danger, risk assessment, and passive avoidance. Superimposed on defensive direction is the Blanchard's construct of defensive distance. The combination of the two dimensions allows a detailed classification of defensive behaviours.

Keywords:   ethoexperimental analysis, fear, anxiety, defence, defensive distance, risk assessment

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