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Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity$
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Ali Argon

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198516002

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198516002.001.0001

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Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity

A. S. Argon

Oxford University Press

Dislocations are the most effective carriers of plasticity in crystalline solids. Under normal circumstances, they are readily generated by purely topological convolution processes as in Frank-Read sources or by double cross slip of screw dislocations, which can in turn produce new Frank-Read sources readily, all at relatively low levels of stress. In BCC metals and strongly directionally bonded solids, the glide of dislocations in their slip planes are resisted by a substantial lattice resistance at low temperatures giving these materials a high intrinsic plastic resistance to begin with. In comparison, in pure close packed FCC and HCP metals the lattice resistance in the best slip systems is normally very small, making it necessary to introduce other extrinsic mechanisms to raise the plastic resistance. This is most effectively accomplished by alloying with a second constituent, which either in the form of a solid solution or as precipitate particles in the host metal can very effectively elevate the resistance to dislocation motion. This chapter starts with a discussion of why a dislocation mechanics view is essential for properly understanding the remarkable effectiveness of strengthening by small volume fractions of second constituents either in solution or in the from of nano-meter sized precipitates, which is both qualitatively and quantitatively missed by a heterogeneous continuum plasticity approach. Following this comparison, the major strengthening mechanisms that will be developed in greater detail in Chapters 4-8 are listed briefly.

Keywords:   dislocation mechanics, continuum plasticity, continuum composite theory, Frank-Read sources, double cross slip, BCC metals, FCC metals, HCP metals

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