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Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity$
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Ali Argon

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198516002

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198516002.001.0001

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STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS AND THE “DEFECT STATE”

STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS AND THE “DEFECT STATE”

Chapter:
(p.1) 1 STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS AND THE “DEFECT STATE”
Source:
Strengthening Mechanisms in Crystal Plasticity
Author(s):

A. S. Argon

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198516002.003.0001

What governs the state of order of a solid depends primarily on the type of atomic bonding and on the processing path. The interest in this book is almost entirely in solids in the crystalline state and in their inelastic response sufficiently below their melting points, where diffusion controlled alterations of their structure is too slow to be of importance when compared to their rates of inelastic response. The chapter considers first some of the most important crystal structures that will permit dealing with their inelastic response mechanisms. At temperatures sufficiently below the melting point and under low applied stress, all solids exhibit reversible elastic behavior which is nearly always anisotropic when referred to the perfect crystal. However, the coverage mostly idealizes the elastic response as isotropic and linear. A perfect crystalline solid in single crystalline form can respond only in a reversible elastic manner in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings when stressed monotonically below critical levels that causes destabilization. Under an applied homogeneous stress, elastic response is homogeneous down to the atomic level. In contrast, inelastic, or more narrowly, plastic response is locally heterogeneous and requires crystal defects for its development. The type and intensity of the plastic response depends on the character of the “defect state”. For this purpose, the chapter introduces first the principal crystal defects with increasing hierarchy of dimensionality from point, to line, to planar, and defines their characteristic features. Of these, concern is with dislocations as the principal “carriers” of plastic deformation. First, the line properties of dislocations are introduced, which permits focusing on their individual behavior and their interactions as separate entities, thereby translating much of “crystal plasticity” into “dislocation mechanics”.

Keywords:   small strain elasticity, isotropic solids, temperature, strain dependence, elastic response, crystal defects, inelastic deformation, vacancies, interstitials, stress fields of dislocations

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