This chapter integrates the major conclusions from the book. It focuses on how much is known about variation in insect physiology from the phylogenetic and geographic perspectives, raising the issue of the extent of work done on non-model organisms and a dearth of studies in the southern hemisphere, despite likely differences in broad-scale patterns among hemispheres. The significance of body size and of cross-resistance are further explored in the context of poor reporting, such as of body size in studies of development rate. The chapter concludes by identifying the significant areas in which physiological ecology has a role to play in promoting an understanding how insects will respond to global climate change, including both temperature change and the effects of global change-type drought.
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