Flight performance in insects is inextricably linked with behavioural and physiological thermoregulation. This chapter deals especially with the evolutionary implications of insect thermoregulation and reviews the basic mechanisms and principles, including those at the biophysical level. Wide-ranging studies are described that examine thermoregulation in bees, butterflies, and dragonflies from the level of enzyme function through to flight performance and thermal ecology. The ecological and evolutionary implications of endothermy have been strongly emphasized in recent research, an example being elegant analyses of interactions between flight pattern, morphology, palatability, and thermoregulation in Neotropical butterfly assemblages.
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