This chapter examines the phase error problem and also shows, via a dispersion analysis, that higher order methods can significantly improve phase accuracy. Once a solution is computed it is desirable to assess the accuracy of the solution to determine how to refine the mesh. The next section of the chapter presents a residual based a posteriori error analysis that shows how both the error in the curl of the solution and the divergence needs to be assessed. The final section concerns absorbing boundary conditions, which are often used in preference to the ‘exact’ techniques in Chapters 10-12 to ease the implementation burden. The standard Silver-Muller condition, infinite elements, and the justly popular Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) of Berenger are discussed.
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