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The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect$
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Hans-Otto Karnath, A. David Milner, and Giuseppe Vallar

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780198508335

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508335.001.0001

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Two neural systems for visual orienting and the pathophysiology of unilateral spatial neglect

Two neural systems for visual orienting and the pathophysiology of unilateral spatial neglect

Chapter:
(p.258) (p.259) 5.3 Two neural systems for visual orienting and the pathophysiology of unilateral spatial neglect
Source:
The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect
Author(s):

Maurizio Corbetta

Michelle J. Kincade

Gordon L. Shulman

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198508335.003.0019

This chapter critically assesses current neurobiological models of attention and unilateral spatial neglect, particularly in relation to neuroimaging results acquired over the last decade. It highlights that these models do not account for significant discrepancies between lesion studies and neuroimaging results. It then reports a new experiment that clarifies some of these discrepancies and proposes a revision of current models. It is noted that lesions causing neglect in the frontal lobe do not match with frontal areas of activation during visuospatial attention; rather, they better match the location of regions mediating alerting/vigilance. Moreover, the current evidence supports a role for human anterior cingulate cortex (AC) in response evaluation and monitoring, and not stimulus selection or motivation. It is also shown that temporoparietal junction (TPJ) plays a critical role in alerting. The proposed model clarifies some of the discrepancies between neuropsychological studies of neglect and brain imaging studies of visuospatial attention, and provides novel information on the pathophysiology of neglect.

Keywords:   unilateral spatial neglect, neural systems, visual orienting, pathophysiology, neurobiological models, visuospatial attention

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