The practical application of disease-causing micro-organisms for the control of forest pest outbreaks is dominated by their inundative release as microbial insecticides. The characteristics of the different kinds of micro-organism such as their sensitivity to environmental conditions, host ranges and persistence in the environment, influence the way in which they are used. This chapter discusses these aspects in relation to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), baculoviruses, nematodes, and fungi. Examples of experimental and operational use are given, followed by a discussion of possible non-target effects in the environment. The registration and commercial availability of microbial organisms influences their practical use, and this is briefly discussed.
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