Biocontrol can be a useful tool in forest pest management. Using insect predators, parasitoids and disease-causing pathogens as examples, this chapter discusses the different methods of biocontrol. The augmentation and conservation of natural enemies is illustrated by case studies of the inoculative release of fungal pathogens against gypsy moth, and the inundative release of egg parasitoids against spruce budworm. In classical biocontrol, the selection of appropriate natural enemies is discussed under the topics of evaluation of the pest in the target region, exploration in the pest area of origin, selection of appropriate natural enemies, quarantine and rearing, release of one or more species, and evaluation and monitoring. The risk to non-target populations is considered in relation to the use of generalist natural enemies. Classical biocontrol is illustrated by two case studies: the release of parasitoids against larch casebearer and the role of parasitoids and predators in biocontrol of winter moth. The economic benefits of biocontrol are briefly discussed.
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