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Legitimate Expectations in Administrative Law$

Soren Schønberg

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198299479

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198299479.001.0001

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(p.263) Index

(p.263) Index

Source:
Legitimate Expectations in Administrative Law
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
abuse of process 91, 108, 114
access to information 19, 162
accountability 159
ad hoc compensation awards 172
administration in the public interest 7
administrative efficacy 24
administrative instruction 138
administrative liability:
comparison of legal systems 168–73
EC law: corporate 170;
fault 170;
no-fault 171
English law: tort 169;
vicarious 170
French law: equality of burdens 171;
fault 170, 171;
no-fault 171;
risk 171
administrative procedures, see procedural protection of expectations
administrative representations, see informal representations
adoption 55, 57
adversarial procedures 162–3
Advocate General:
role of 162
Allison, J. 163,215,216
anti-dumping 35, 37, 142
assurances, see informal representations
asylum seekers, see immigration
audi alterem partem, see procedural fairness principle
Australia 3
auto-limitation principle 7
autonomy:
basic premise of justification for legal protection of expectations 9
reliance theory 9–11
Rule of Law theory, see Rule of Law theory
autorisations de police 86–8, 194
bonus pater familias 119
breach of statutory duty 184, 185, 187
budget:
the European Community 121, 130
Canada 3
causation in fact 200, 208, 226, 230, 231
certificate of information:
land planning, individualized representations 132
charities 47
circulates 138–40, 227
clerical errors:
revocation of decisions 79–81
codes of conduct 120
collectivist ideology 172
comfort letters 124
Commissaire de gouvernement:
role of 162
Common Agricultural Policy 127, 142, 144
communicated decisions 77, 78
comparative legal methodology 4, 5
compensation:
lawful decisions, revocation 173;
conclusion 180–2;
EC law 178–80;
English law 173, 174;
French law 175–8
unlawful decisions, revocation 182;
EC law, see EC law;
English law, see English law;
French law, see French law
compensatory protection of expectations 1
combined with procedural and substantive rules 240–2
comparison of legal systems 238
conclusion 238
informal representations 217, 218;
causation requirement 230–2;
comparison of legal systems 232–1;
damage requirement 230–2;
departure from correct representations 222–6;
misrepresentations, see misrepresentations;
reasonable reliance requirement, see reasonable reliance;
reform, suggestions 234–6
reform 239
revocation of decisions, see revocation of decisions
competition law 59, 60, 75, 126, 148
conditional decisions 76
Conseil d'État:
advisory functions 193
overloading 20
procedure 161
remedies 193
style of judgments 201
consistency 108, 133, 135
constitution:
the French 7
constitutive decisions 65, 68, 95
consultation:
judicial review proceedings 163
(p.264) contracts affected by changes in policy 143–5, 225
‘contradiction’ principle 33
contributory fault:
EC law 211,212
English law 192
French law 204, 205
corporate liability 170
cost-benefit analysis 152–4
Craig, P. P. 152,215
criminal behaviour:
reasonable expectations 126
Crown, the:
liability in tort 167
public–private divide 163
Crown Office List 159
deception:
reasonable expectation 126
revocation of decisions 79–81
decisions:
irrevocable, see irrevocable decisions
modification: EC law 48, 49;
procedural fairness 43, 44
revocation, see revocation of decisions
declarations:
of the Council of Ministers 121
declaratory decisions 65, 68, 95, 96
decree:
meaning of term 36
defence rights 2, 35
additional conditions 40, 41
intensiveness of effect of decision 39, 40
revocation of decisions 45–8
rights and interests, distinction 36, 37
scope of principle 36–41
types of interests protected 36–9
delay:
judicial review proceedings 20
source of reasonable expectations 114, 122–3
delegated legislation:
review of 146
delegation of powers, see estoppel
delict 169
deportation, see immigration
Dicey, A. W. 169, 173
Rule of Law theory, see Rule of Law theory
directives 135, 138–40
directly effective EC law 164
disclosure:
reasonable expectations 126
discretionary:
decisions 68
remedies 160
dismissal, see employment
dumping, see anti-dumping
duty of care:
compensation for revocation of unlawful decisions 186–8, 205
Dworkin, R. 27
EC law:
administrative liability 168–73;
corporate 170;
fault 170;
no-fault 171, 179
compensation for revocation of unlawful decisions: actual and certain damage 210, 211;
causation 208–10;
concept of legality, variation 207, 208;
conclusion 212, 213;
contributory fault 211, 212;
overview 205–7;
substitution of legal basis 207, 208
defence rights, see defence rights
departure from correct representations, damages liability 223
informal representations 58–60, 117–19;
court review 118;
departure from policy, justification 137;
duty to apply policy 135;
equal treatment 118;
expectations claims 128–31;
policy changes 144, 145;
procedural and substantive, distinction 59;
reasonable and legitimate expectations, balance 118, 128;
reasonable expectations, see reasonable expectations;
substantive protection 117–19
irrevocable decisions: change in facts 81, 82;
changes of fact, decisions granted with conditions implied from statutory requirements 83, 84;
changes of fact, decisions granted with conditions imposed by the administration 82, 83;
fraud 80;
policy changes 88
legal osmosis theory 26–8
misrepresentations, damages liability 221, 222
modification of decisions 48, 49
protection of substantive legitimate expectations 26
revocation of decisions: procedural protection 48, 49;
vested rights 65, 71–3, 178
unlawful decisions, revocation: balance between legality and legal certainty principles 97, 98;
compensation 205–13;
exceptions 101, 102;
general principle 96–101;
pecuniary declaratory decisions 101, 102;
principles affecting scope of administrative tort liability 183, 184;
prospective revocation 97, 98;
public law principle 96;
retroactive revocation 97–100
unlawful representations 148
economic efficiency 28, 29
(p.265) education 43, 47, 54, 77, 96, 115, 130, 141
employment:
English law 42, 44
French law 35, 46, 70, 76–8, 81, 115, 194, 201, 226–7
English law:
administrative liability 168–73;
tort 169;
vicarious 170
compensation for revocation of unlawful decisions 182–93;
breach of statutory duty 184, 185;
causation 190, 191;
conclusion 192, 193;
contributory fault 192;
misfeasance in public office 190;
negligence, see negligence liability;
ombudsman system 192
departure from correct representations, damages liability 222, 223
informal representations 49–56, 108–14;
abuse of process 114;
application of different situations 54–6;
balancing of considerations 52–4, 112, 113;
departure from policy, justification 137;
duty to apply policy 134;
estoppel by representation 109–11;
expectations claims 128–31;
explicit 50;
implicit 50, 51;
legality principle 52;
legitimate expectation condition 51, 52;
policy changes 143–5;
reasonable and legitimate expectations, balance 128;
reasonable expectations, see reasonable expectations;
substantive protection 108–14;
Wednesbury unreasonableness 112;
wording 51;
worthiness of holder of expectation 52, 53
irrevocable decisions: changes of fact, decisions granted with conditions imposed by the administration 83;
clerical errors 80;
fraud 79;
policy changes 84–6
misrepresentations, damages liability 218–20;
Hedley Byrne principle 218;
misstatements 218
procedural fairness principle, see procedural fairness principle
revocation of decisions: compensation 173, 174;
estoppel by record 64;
finality of administrative determinations 64;
functus officio 64;
procedural fairness 42–5;
procedural protection 42–5
unlawful decisions, revocation 89–92;
abuse of criminal court's process 91, 92;
compensation 182–93;
delegation of powers 90, 91;
estoppel by representation 90;
legality principle 89, 90;
species of illegality 90;
waiving of procedural formalities 91
unlawful informal representations 147, 148
equal treatment principle 27, 115, 118, 130, 133, 141
estoppel by record 64
estoppel by representation 90, 94, 109–11, 128, 147
European Social Fund 35, 37, 48–9, 88
evidence 161–3
ex gratia payments:
compensation for loss caused by revocation of decisions 174, 177, 178, 181
expert opinions of the European Commission 130–1
extradition, see immigration
fairness:
concept 2, 7, 8, 29, 237
fait du prince principle 224
fault-grading 197–200
fault liability 170, 171
breach of non-contractual promise 224
federalism 28
fettering of discretion 155–6
fines, see competition law
fonctionnaire de fait doctrine 94
foster-parents 43, 57, 219–20
fraud:
reasonable expectations 126
revocation of decisions 79–81
freedom of information, see access to information
French law:
administrative liability 168–73;
corporate 170;
delict 169;
equality of burdens 171, 175;
fault 170, 171;
no-fault 171, 175, 176;
risks 171
compensation for revocation of unlawful decisions: actual and certain damage requirement 202–4;
causation 200–2;
concept of legality, variation 195–7;
conclusion 205;
contributory fault 204, 205;
difficult tasks 198;
direct and indirect causes 200;
exceptionally gross fault 198;
fault 193;
fault-grading 197, 198;
gross fault 197–200;
loss of profit 202;
overview 193–5;
public services bodies 199;
service fault 193;
substitution of motives and legal basis 195–7;
taxation 198
defence rights, see defence rights
departure from correct representations, damages liability 224–6;
fault liability for non-contractual promise 224
informal representations 56–8, 114–17;
administrative decisions, distinction 114;
(p.266) circulaires 138–40;
departure from policy, justification 137;
directives 138–40;
duty to apply policy 135, 138–10;
equal treatment 115;
individualized representations 131–3;
land planning 132;
legal acts 114;
legally relevant facts 114;
policy changes 143;
substantive protection 114–17;
taxation 131,132
irrevocable decisions: change in facts or policy 81;
changes of fact, decisions granted with conditions implied from statutory requirements 83, 84;
changes of fact, decisions granted with conditions imposed by the administration 82;
clerical errors 80;
fraud 80;
policy changes 86–8
misrepresentations, damages liability 220, 221
revocation of decisions: compensation, lawful decisions 175–8;
compensation, unlawful decisions 193–205;
decisions which create rights 64;
procedural protection 45–8
unlawful decisions, revocation: constitutive decisions 95;
declaratory decisions 95, 96;
declaratory pecuniary decisions 95, 96;
exceptions to time limit 95, 96;
fonctionnaire de fait doctrine 94;
general principle 92–4;
intangibility principle 93;
time limit for judicial review 93
unlawful informal representations 148, 149
functional approach:
comparative legal methodology 4
German law 3, 71–2, 118
good administration 24–6
Habermas, J. 23,24
Harlow, C. 181
health and safety measures 41, 46–7, 51, 86–8, 177, 188,217
health authorities 129
hearing, the right to a, see procedural protection of expectations
Hedley Byrne principle 218
historical perspectives 3, 32–3
home, the right to a 129
housing:
public 44, 185
improvement grants 46, 69, 135
Human Rights Act 1998, impact of the 45, 153, 159–60, 162, 164, 214–16
illégalité = faute principle 193, 199, 205–7
illegality, see unlawful, ultra vires
immigration 18, 53–5, 69, 122–4, 135, 188
impartiality principle 32, 35
incorrect documents:
revocation of decisions 79–81
individualized representations, see informal representations
industrial tribunals 43
informal representations:
compensatory protection of expectations: causation requirement 230–2;
comparison of legal systems 232–1;
damage requirement 230–2;
departure from correct representations, damages liability 222–6;
misrepresentations, see misrepresentations;
overview 217, 218;
reasonable reliance requirement, see reasonable reliance;
reform, suggestions 234–6
departure from correct representations, damages liability: EC law 223;
English law 222, 223;
French law 224–6
departures from policy: administrative practice, departure from 141, 142;
categorization of policy as rules 133, 134;
duty to apply policy in particular instances 134–7;
internal documents 140, 141;
overview 133;
policy statement 134;
published documents 140, 141;
scope of duty to apply policy 138–10
individualized representations: expectations claims 128–31;
overview 119;
reasonable and legitimate expectations, balance 128;
reasonable expectations, see reasonable expectations;
statutory exceptions in French law 131–3
policy changes 142–6;
advance notice 142;
exceptions 142;
‘mutability’ principle 143;
transitional provisions 142
procedural protection of expectations: EC law 58–60;
English law 49–56;
French law 56–8;
overview 49
proportionality principle 152–4
substantive protection of expectations: binding effects, English law 108–14;
change of policy 142–6;
comparative summary 149, 150;
departure from policy 133–12;
EC law 117–19;
English law 108–14;
French law 114–17;
individualized representations, departure from 119–33;
overview 107;
reform, suggestions 150–64;
unlawful representations 146–9
‘super-Wednesbury 151
test of review, suggested development 154, 155;
constitutional role of judges 158, 159;
discretionary powers, fettering (p.267) 155, 156;
judicial competence 159, 160;
polycentrism 160–2;
public and private law, distinction 163, 164;
third parties, harm to 156;
unrealistic demands on administration 156–8
Wednesbury 151–5
Information:
reliability 25
injunctions, see remedies
intangibility of decisions 70, 71, 93
integrity of law 27
inter-institutional agreements 121
internal documents 140–1
international law:
unincorporated treaties 121
internet:
legal sources on 6
inquisitorial procedures 162–3
irrationality, see Wednesbury unreasonableness
irrevocable decisions 64
communicated decisions 77, 78
conditional decisions 76
EC law 71–3
English law 66–9
exceptions to general principles: change in facts 81–4;
changes of fact, decisions with conditions implied from statutory requirements 83, 84;
changes of facts, decisions with conditions imposed by the administration 82, 83;
clerical error 79–81;
consent of all affected parties 79;
fraud/deception 79–81;
policy changes 84–8
favourable decisions 73–5
French law 70, 71
less favourable decisions 74
reliance requirement 78, 79
scope of principles 73–9
signed decisions 77, 78
unfavourable decisions 73
judges:
competence 159, 160
constitutional role 158, 159
discretion 151
education 159
values 152
judicial review:
evidence 161–3
expectations claims 128–31
justification for 158–9
human rights claims 113, 151
overloading 20
principles 7
proportionality principle 152–4
reasonable expectations and public policy, balance 128–31
test of review, suggested development 154, 155;
constitutional role of judges 158, 159;
discretionary powers, fettering 155, 156;
judicial competence 159, 160;
polycentrism 160–2;
public and private law, distinction 163, 164;
third parties, harm to 156;
unrealistic demands on administration 156–8
time limit, revocation of unlawful decisions 93
justiciability 160–2, 183, 187–8
justification for legal protection of expectations:
autonomy as basic premise 9
conclusion 29, 30
economic efficiency 28, 29
legal osmosis theory 26–8
reliance theory, see reliance theory
Rule of Law theory, see Rule of Law theory
trust in administration 24–6
legal aid 21, 63
legal certainty 68, 71, 97
legal osmosis theory 26–8
legality principle 7, 52, 89, 90, 97
legitimate expectations:
meaning of term 6
liability:
administrative, see administrative liability
corporate 170
departure from correct representations 222–6
fault 170, 171
for breach of EC law 167, 215
misrepresentations, see misrepresentations
no-fault 171, 179
risks 171
vicarious 170
licences:
revocation 41–8, 86–8, 203, 204
locus standi 162
MacCormick, N. 10
maladministration 192, 233
mandatory considerations 111
manifest error of appreciation 137, 142
Médiateur 178
mesures de police administrative 41, 46–8, 60, 86–8, 194
metal scrap equalization scheme 97–8
methodology 4–5
milk quotas 71, 83, 96, 144–5
misfeasance 190
misrepresentations:
damages liability: EC law 221, 222;
English (p.268) law 218–20;
French law 220, 221;
incorrectness of statements 222;
reasonable reliance, see reasonable reliance;
temporal dimension of concept 222
misstatements 218, 231
modification of decisions:
EC law 48, 49
procedural fairness 43, 44
monetary compensation amounts 144
Montesquieu 105
mutability principle 143
national and EC administrative law:
relationship 26–8
nationality 47
‘natural justice’ principles 32
necessity principle 152–4
negligence liability:
duty of care 186–8
gross unlawfulness requirement 188–90
justiciability 187
misstatements 218
overview 185, 186
‘policy-operational’ distinction 187
pure economic loss 183–4, 190, 202–3, 205, 210–13
suggested development, sufficiently serious breach test 215–16
Netherlands, the 3
New Zealand 3
no-fault liability 171
Nolan Report, the 9
non-existent decisions 89, 93, 97
note of information 138
notified decisions 77, 78
ombudsman 192
oral statements 121, 123–4, 147–8, 227
ordre public concept 86
parallélisme des formes et procedures principle 35
parole 44, 69
pensions 65
planning laws:
compensation for revocation of permission: English law 174, 181;
French law 177, 203–5
individualized representations 132
liability in tort: decision-making 187–8, 198, 203–5;
informal representations 222, 224, 228–30, 232
police administrative—police judiciaire distinction 86
polycentrism 160–2
prefects:
supervisory powers 199
preventable harm 11
price regulations 143, 147, 226
prisoners 11, 44, 61, 68–9, 85, 144
privatisation 159, 170
procedural fairness principle 34, 35
additional conditions 40, 41
administrative representations 49–56
intensiveness of effect of decisions 39, 40
legitimate expectations, concept 37–9
modification of decisions 43, 44
revocation of decisions 42–5
rights and interests, distinction 36
scope 36–41
types of interests protected 36–9
procedural protection of expectations 1, 31, 32
combined with substantive and compensatory rules 240–2
comparison of legal systems 32;
case law, principles based on 34;
conclusion 238;
content 41, 42;
courts, approaches to judicial control of administration 32–4;
defence rights 35–41;
procedural fairness 34, 36–41;
reform, suggestions 60–3;
sources of procedural protection 34–6;
statutory requirements 35, 36;
summary 60–3
informal representations: EC law 58–60;
English law 49–56;
French law 56–8;
overview 49
procedures and expectations, connection 31
reform 239
revocation of decisions, see revocation of decisions
property rights, see planning
proportionality principle 152–4
prosecution 91, 108, 114
prospective revocation of decisions 65, 97, 98
prudent reliance 227
public information 25
public law–private law divide 163–4
public procurement 211, 223
publication:
reasonable expectations, internal documents 140–1, 149
Raz, J. 10, 13,24
reactions to judicial review 153
reasonable expectations:
individualized representations: conduct 121;
criminal behaviour 126;
disclosure requirement 126;
foreseeability 126–8;
(p.269) form 120;
fraud or deception 126;
internal documents 140–1;
nature of 120–5;
negotiations 122;
oral statements 121, 123–4, 147–8;
overview 119;
recipient's situation 125–8;
settled practice 54, 141–2;
silence, inaction or delay 122;
subjectively held expectations 125;
wording of explicit statement 123
informal representations 50
meaning of term 6
reasonable reliance:
informal representations: causation in fact 226, 227;
context of representation 227;
detrimental financial reliance 226;
form and content of representation 227;
knowledge of recipient 227, 229;
oral statements 227;
prudent reliance 227;
silence or inaction 228;
statements made exceeding authority, liability 229, 230;
types of representation 227–9;
wording 228;
written statements 227
reasons for decisions, see procedural protection of expectations
recommendations:
Council of Ministers 121
internal administrative 138
reform, suggestions for 239
procedural fairness 60–3
substantive principles 102–6, 149 66
tort and compensation 213–16, 232–6
relevancy principle 111
reliance theory 9–11
argument 9, 10
inflexibility 11
irrevocable decisions 78
narrowness 10, 11
reformulation 10
remedies:
discretionary nature 160
injunctions in French law 193
remoteness 230
resolutions of the EC institutions 120–1
resolutive conditions 82, 83
retroactive revocation of decisions 65, 97–100
revocation of decisions:
compensatory protection of expectations: administrative liability 168–73;
compensation for loss, see compensation;
conclusion 213, 214;
overview 167, 168;
reform, suggestions 214–16
procedural protection of expectations 42;
EC law 48, 49;
English law 42–5;
French law 45–8
substantive protection of expectations:
comparison of legal systems 102;
constitutive decisions 65;
continuous temporal dimension of decisions 65;
declaratory decisions 65;
EC law, vested rights 64, 71–3;
English law 64, 66–9;
French law, decisions which create rights 64, 70, 71;
overview 64–6;
prospective and retroactive revocation, distinction 65;
reform, suggestions 102–4;
temporally complete decisions 65
unlawful decisions, see unlawful decisions,
rights of the defence, see defence rights
rights–interests distinction 37–8
risks:
liability 171
role of law in society 172
Rule of Law theory 2, 12–5
alternative theory 23, 24
application of requirements to different situations 14, 15
assessment 17–23
case law 16, 17
certainty 13
constancy in the law 13
external criticism 23
formal equality 13
internal criticism 17–23
predictability 13
rule-making 2, 3
Scandinavian law 3
seaworthiness certificates 182, 184, 188
separation of powers 158–9
settled practice 54, 141–2
signed decisions 77, 78
significant imbalance test 149–66
social security 68, 96, 115, 169
socialism 172
socialization of risks 172
soft-law 121
spill-over 26–8
staff cases, see employment
standing 162
State concept 163–4
steel quotas 74, 99, 126, 130–1, 141
subsidiarity principle 28
substantive protection of expectations 1
combined with procedural and compensatory rules 240–2
comparison of legal systems, conclusion 238
EC law principle 26
informal representations, see informal representations
reform 239
revocation of decisions, see revocation of decisions
(p.270) substitution of motives 195–7
sufficiently serious breach test 215–16
‘super-Wednesbury 151
taxation:
gross fault liability 198
individualized representation 131, 132
reasonable expectations 121, 122
Taxpayer's Charter 120
unlawful informal representations 148, 149
terminology:
decree 36
informal representation 107
legitimate expectation 6
reasonable expectation 6
time limit for judicial review:
existing 21
revocation of unlawful decisions 93
tort 169
trade unions, see employment
treaties of international law 121
tutelle 199
trust 2, 25, 237
ultra vires rationale for judicial review 158–9
unemployment benefits 47, 221, 229
undertakings, see informal representations
unlawful decisions:
revocation: comparison of legal systems 104–6;
compensation, see compensation;
EC law 96–102;
English law 89–92;
French law 92–6;
nature of the problem 89
unlawful informal representations:
general principle 146, 147;
exceptions 147–9
reform, suggestions 164–6
utilitarianism 172
Van Gerven, W. 27
VAT 233
vested rights principle 178
vicarious liability 170
Viney, G. 195
void decisions 89
war damage 66, 174
Weber, M. 12
Wednesbury unreasonableness 112, 151–5, 188–90
welfare state 21
white papers 120