This chapter analyses parallel historical technological innovation processes in order to develop more general theories and comments about technological change in modern market economies. A technological innovation process means the process whereby agents act to transform new knowledge, inventions, and/or scientific techniques into economic value, often through products, production processes, and/or changes to the organization. The focus here therefore is not on why a product is successful in a market or why a technology functions but is instead on the scientific, technological, and other knowledge-seeking activities enabling technical change. It is argued that innovation processes are constituted by many knowledge-seeking activities, whereby agents' perceptions and actions are translated into practice. Evolution as defined here draws on an explicit comparison of evolutionary theories for biology and socio-economic phenomena. The perspective of evolutionary innovation has close ties to evolutionary economics but also to other social sciences.
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