This chapter discusses the substantial form of matter in two sections. The first section of the chapter looks at Scotus's claim that instantiated substantial forms are individuals that are themselves essential parts of individual composite substances. It includes Aquinas' view that a substantial form is individuated in virtue of its inhering in this lump of matter. In this first section the chapter provides an account of how such forms are naturally produced. The second part of the chapter discusses what was called in medieval times the rationes seminales. It rejects a vitalistic account of matter, according to which all forms exist inchoately in matter. Scotus argues that the rationes seminales theory can't carry out the explanatory work required of it. He points out that it is not possible for inchoate properties to be sufficient for the existence of higher-order properties.
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