Justice requires securing to everyone that to which each has a right, or, in a somewhat wider way, securing to each what is due to each under some overall dispensation. However, Smith's system of natural liberty, Kant's laws of freedom, and Stair's ‘society, property and commerce’ are all inadequate to satisfy the full demands of justice of which contemporary humans in the 21st century are aware. Issues of distributive justice, of environmental justice (and common good), and of justice among different generations escape their net. This chapter draws on famous recent work by John Rawls and Ronald Dworkin to suggest ways in which such concerns can be built on to the picture developed so far, enriching it deeply but not deleting its broad outline.
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