Estoppel is triggered by words, behaviour, or silence leading someone to believe in a state of affairs. A word that can be used as a shorthand for this is ‘representation’, which has a long association with estoppel. The rarity of representation in ordinary language makes it easier to use as a term of art. It has been argued that the notion of estoppel as dependent upon a representation (in the sense of a statement of fact), or upon a promise, must be abandoned. This chapter discusses different forms of representation, leading back to the traditional classification of estoppels by type of representation. The approach taken here is to consider generally how a court is to assess whether or not a representation has been made, looking where necessary at special considerations.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.