This chapter comments on the formulas: ‘In saying x, I was doing y’ or ‘I did y’; and ‘By saying x, I did y’ or ‘I was doing y’. It was because of the availability of these formulas which seem specially suitable, the former (in) for picking out verbs which are names for illocutionary acts, and the latter (by) for picking out verbs which are names for perlocutionary acts, that the names illocutionary and perlocutionary were chosen. To use the ‘by saying’ formula as a test of an act being perlocutionary, one must first be sure that ‘by’ is being used in an instrumental as distinct from a criterion sense; and that ‘saying’ is being used in the full sense of a locutionary act.
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