This chapter summarizes the preceding discussions. It examines the nature of mÉtis identity throughout the colonial period. Regarding the analysis of the links between the psychiatric profession and the legal system in fin-de-siècle France, it notes that the psychiatric concepts were founded by number of dichotomies including mind and body. Condemnation of miscegenation was never enough to prevent it from taking place in the colonies. The possibility for Africans to become citizens of France was a central element in the legitimizing concept of assimilation, which suggested a break with the traditional dichotomies of colonial rule.
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