It is generally agreed by historians that the Anglo-French treaty concluded between Henry III and Louis IX at Paris, France, in 1259 lay behind many of the problems from which subsequent Anglo-French tensions stemmed. To understand the nature of relations between the two kingdoms between 1250 and 1340 it is important to consider the manner in which the treaty was made, and the implications of its clauses. The treaty can be divided into four main parts. Firstly, Henry III of England took the somewhat unwise step of renouncing his fiefs in Normandy, Anjou, Touraine, Maine, and Poitou. Henry and Louis had in effect entered upon a private treaty of peace, against the wishes of many of their most powerful subjects.
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