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Radical EnlightenmentPhilosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750$
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Jonathan I. Israel

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780198206088

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198206088.001.0001

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The Intellectual Drama in Spain and Portugal

The Intellectual Drama in Spain and Portugal

(p.528) 28 The Intellectual Drama in Spain and Portugal
Radical Enlightenment

Jonathan I. Israel

Oxford University Press

From the 1680s onwards, the spread of Cartesianism, Malebranchisme, and other branches of the New Philosophy in Spain and Portugal generated a profound intellectual turmoil followed by a process of sporadic renewal, culminating by around 1750 in the emergence of a characteristically Iberian form of Enlightenment. This tumultuous process transformed not only philosophical debate but the entire fabric of Iberian medicine, science, and higher education, and had major ramifications also in Spanish America and Brazil. Moreover, despite various typically local hallmarks, this Iberian intellectual upheaval was always intimately linked to the wider phenomenon gripping Europe as a whole — indeed it formed an integral part of the five-cornered general contest for supremacy between Aristotelianism, Neo-Cartesianism, Leibnizian–Wolffianism, Newtonianism, and the Radical Enlightenment as it raged everywhere else in Europe with the partial exception of Britain, where the second and third components were missing.

Keywords:   Cartesianism, radical philosophy, Iberian Enlightenment, Aristotelianism, Neo-Cartesianism, Leibnizian–Wolffianism, Newtonianism, Radical Enlightenment

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