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Byzantium and the Crusader States 1096–1204$
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Ralph-Johannes Lilie

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780198204077

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198204077.001.0001

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Expectations and Dissensions: The First Crusade and Byzantium (1096–1098)

Expectations and Dissensions: The First Crusade and Byzantium (1096–1098)

(p.1) 1 Expectations and Dissensions: The First Crusade and Byzantium (1096–1098)
Byzantium and the Crusader States 1096–1204

Ralph-Johannes Lilie

Oxford University Press

In November 1095 Pope Urban II, at the Council of Clermont, called the chivalry of the Western world to the rescue of the Christian East oppressed by the enemies of the Cross. The response to this appeal surpassed all expectations. Not only the chivalry, who in general profited by the challenge, but also the lower classes rose in their masses in response to the Pope's appeal. But the general response to Urban's appeal was significantly different from what he originally intended. The Pope's original intention was for primarily defensive action. It was to be action in support of the Byzantine Empire which, since the defeat of Manzikert in 1071 in Asia Minor, saw itself threatened by the more powerful pressure of the Seljuks and already had appealed to the West, several times, for help against this. From the beginning there were strains and misunderstandings between crusaders and Byzantines, which bedevilled relationships between them. None the less they depended on each other — Byzantium for the reasons given above, the Westerners because without Byzantium the success of their undertaking was completely impossible.

Keywords:   Byzantine Empire, Pope Urban II, chivalry, Manzikert, Eastern Christianity

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