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Funerals, Politics, and Memory in Modern France, 1789–1996$

Avner Ben-Amos

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780198203285

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198203285.001.0001

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(p.412) (p.413) Index

(p.412) (p.413) Index

Source:
Funerals, Politics, and Memory in Modern France, 1789–1996
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Abetz, Otto 355
Achard, Antoine 155, 157
Action française 219–20, 247
Action française, L’ 245, 248
Agoult, Comtesse d’ 101, 105
Agulhon, Maurice 65, 80, 275
Aiglon, L’, see Reichstadt, Duke of 355
Ajalbert, Jean 214
Albert, François 248, 251
Alcibiades 22
Alexander I 275
allegory 27, 32, 40, 50–1, 75, 316, 323
of liberty 49, 66
of the Republic 103
of victory 217
All Saint’s Day 151, 221
All Soul’s Day 96, 147, 221, 224
Alphand, Jean-Charles 289
Ampère 372
anarchists 192, 253
Andrieux 102
Angers, David d’ 64–5, 95, 250
Anneau d’amethyste, L’ 284
anniversary 4, 5, 34, 55, 158–9
of Baudin’s death 96–7
Bonapartist 79
of deaths of Bourbon kings 60–1
of the July 1830 Revolution 64–6, 70
of the Third Republic 218
Anouilh, Jean 1
Antigone 1
Arago, François 82–3, 144, 169
Aragon, Louis 243, 246–7
Arc de Triomphe:
associated with de Gaulle 363, 367, 376
fourteen July parade 368
funeral of Ferdinand-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans 68
funeral of Foch 278, 299, 318
funeral of Hugo 289, 292, 301–2, 309
funeral of Joffre 343
funerals of Leclerc and de Lattre 360
funeral of Lyautey 234
funeral of Rouget de Lisle 211
funerals of Schoelcher and Eboué 358
importance of 169
inauguration of 70
inauguration of Mitterrand’s presidency 370
parade honouring Clemenceau 273
planning and building 58–9
plans for the 1889 pantheonization 208
Return of the Ashes 74–5, 77
sacred centre of Paris 312–15
Unknown Soldier 215–24
Ariès, Philippe 146, 221
Aristotle 39
Armistice Day, see eleven November
Artaud, Antonin 52, 101
Association of Solidarists 116
Attila the Hun 20
Aube, L’ 357
Auriol, Vincent 359
Autin, Jean 379
Avant Garde, L’ 118, 128
Aymard, General 170, 205
Baczko, Bronislaw 28
Baker, Keith 7
Balandier, Georges 260
Banquets:
campaign of 87, 100
civic 142
of the mayors of France 269, 311, 342
Bara, Joseph 40, 43–5, 47, 50, 161
last words of 282 n. 52
painting of 45, 46
Barail, General du 123–5, 161
Barodet, Désiré 119, 129, 207
Barrère 46 n. 96
Barrès, Maurice 202, 216, 242–5, 286, 311
Barrot, Odilon 93–4
Barthou, Louis 251, 275, 301
Bastien-Lepage, Émile 302
Bastien-Lepage, Jules 302
Bastille:
Column of, see July Column
Day, see fourteen July
Place de la 34, 58, 65–6, 83–4, 94, 101–6, 130, 188, 202, 319, 368, 376
Bataille, La 209
Baudelaire, Charles 268, 312 n. 29, 331
Baudin, Jean 96–7, 180, 189, 207–9, 330
Baudrillart, Henri 141
Baudry d’Asson, de 220, 226–7
Beauvais 41
Beethoven, Ludwig van 370
Belle Hélène, La 209
Béranger, Pierre-Jean 82–5, 91, 115, 169
Berard, Louis 244, 251
Bergson, Henri 214, 357
Berlioz, Hector 67, 250
Bernard, Claude 237 (p.414)
Bernier, Jean 246–7
Berry, Duc de 61–2, 89, 93
Berstein, Serge 369
Bert, Paul 169, 229–31, 236, 261, 272, 275, 283, 342
Berth, Édouard 246
Berthelot, Marcelin 169, 171, 231, 235–6, 238, 277, 375
Berthelot, Sophie 375
Besnard, Albert 250
Beule 120–1
Bichat 372
Blanc, Louis 96, 100, 104, 125, 127, 129, 132, 146, 170, 194, 286, 323
funeral of 135, 189–90
wife of 127–33, 146
Blanqui, Auguste 111
Blanquists 96–7, 115–16
Bloch, Maurice 264–5, 274
Blondel, Robert 160
Bloy, Leon 195
Blum, Léon 358
Boissy, Gabriel 223
Bonaparte, Jérôme 82
Bonaparte, Joseph 82
Bonaparte, Louis-Napoleon 73, 79–83, 96–7, 112, 134, 155, 206, 312
Bonaparte, Lucien 56
Bonaparte, Marie-Louise 59, 74
Bonaparte, Napoleon 8, 50, 54–9, 81, 144, 150, 173, 175, 186
cult of 146
Return of the Ashes 8, 68, 70–9, 83, 183, 234, 355
statue of 112
Bonaparte, Pierre-Napoleon 97–9
Bonnard, Abel 356
Bonnat, Léon 250, 289, 292, 302
Bonnefoy, abbot 154
Bonnier 50
Bos, Charles 198
Bouchet, Émile 153–4
Bouguereau, William 289
Boulanger, General 207, 229, 350, 372
Bourbon Restoration 6, 92, 115, 321
royal funerals 59–63
subversive funerals 88–92
Bourdeau 301
Bourdieu, Pierre 267, 338
Bourdon, Jérôme 365, 379
Bourdon, Leonard 48
Bracke 220
Braille, Louis 358
Branly, Édouard 335
Breton, André 243, 246
Briand, Aristide 165, 282–3, 301, 344
Brisson, Henri 125, 129, 132, 170, 192, 196, 231, 235, 238, 293
Brissot 39
Broglie, Duc de 90
Broglie, de 122, 175
Brousse, Fortuné 123
Brunetière, Ferdinand 238
Bruni, Leonardo 385
Brutus 34 n. 58
Brutus, bust of 45
Buisson, Ferdinand 138 n. 11, 220
Burial at Ornans 259
Cachin, Marcel 245
Caesar, Julius 376
Caillaux, Joseph 247
Calas 36
Callieres de l’Etang 45
Calmon 179–81
Camelinat, Zephirin 319
Campenon, General 227
Canaille, La 99
Canrobert, Marshal 335
Caramagnole 65
Carlyle, Thomas 172 n. 19
Carne, de 71
Carnot, Hippolyte 208
Carnot, Lazare 58, 207–9, 330
Carnot, Sadi:
assassination of 275
celebrating Pasteur’s birthday 238
funeral of 172, 251, 261, 273 n. 15, 284, 293, 316, 329, 340, 343, 347 n. 51
funerals of presidents and 170
mourning for 308
pantheonization of 1889 209
song for the funeral of 298
tour in the provinces 142, 342
Carrel, Armand 94
Cartel des Gauches 245–6, 253, 319
Casimir-Périer, Jean 198 n. 122, 199
Cassagnac, Paul de 134, 178, 196
Cassin, René 371–2, 374
Cavaignac, General Eugène 105
Cavaignac, Godefroy 96
Célerier 34
Ce Soir 356
Chailley, Joseph 230
Chalier, Marie-Joseph 40, 43
Challemel-Lacour 96
Champ de Mars 28, 51
Champs-Élysées, Avenue des 28, 74–5, 77, 79, 99, 211, 217, 247, 367–8
Chanet, Jean-François 342
Chanzy, General 170, 195, 205, 219, 286
Chaplin, Charles-Josuah 302
Charles V 61
Charles X 62, 93, 175
Charpentier, Gustave 361 (p.415)
Chartier, Roger 19
Charton, Édouard 249
Chateaubriand, René de 144
Chaunu, Pierre 145 n. 44
Chavannes, Puvis de 250
Chenavard 80, 153–4
Chénier, Marie Joseph 34, 41, 288
Chennevières, Phillippe de 153
Chevandier 150
Chevreul 301
Chirac, Jacques 372, 377–8
Cissey, General de 123
civic education 44, 138–9, 156–7, 161–2, 171, 205, 229, 241, 330, 333, 351
civic humanism 22, 138 n. 9, 384–5
Civil Burial Society 115
Civil Constitution of the Clergy 33, 34, 373
Civil Funerals 135
Clamageran 85
Clarté 246
Claudel, Paul 361
Clemenceau, Georges 29, 137, 192, 197, 217, 226, 236, 273, 367
Clément-Thomas, General 111–12
Clinchant, General 170, 205
Colbert 22
Colette 360
Colonial Exhibition 231–2
Combes, Émile 236
commemoration:
of Athenian soldiers 382
of Baudin 96
Comte and 145
eleven November and 221, 224
of four August 209
fourteen July and 196
funeral as 5, 109
of Hoche 206
July Monarchy and 63–5
‘logic of the same’ and 158–9
in modern regimes 136
official 168, 371
the Panthéon and 25–7
policy of 54
republican 39, 153, 157
Roman republican funerals and 384
of second degree 162
of victims of the Commune 111
of war 212–24
of World War II 356–7
Commune (of Paris) 88, 99, 107–9, 111–12, 122, 204, 319, 330
anticlericalism of 116
funerals for victims of 110–12
communitas 304, 307
Comte, Auguste 144–6, 235, 242, 265
Concorde, Place de la:
Déroulède’s coup d’état 202
funeral of Barrès 244
funeral of bombardment’s victims (1942) 355
funeral of Ferdinand-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans 68
funeral of France 247
funeral of Rouget de Lisle 211
funeral of victims of June 1848 105
Louis XVIII 59
pantheonization of Jaurès 319
parade of 14 July (1974) 368
Return of the Ashes 74
Victory parade of 1919 217
Condé, Prince de 61, 227
Condorcet, Marquis Nicolat de 371, 373–4
Connerton, Paul 5
Constant, Benjamin 89, 92
Constitutionel, Le 230
Convention, National 39, 40, 41, 45–50
Coquereau 76
Corday, Charlotte 40
Corneille 22
coronation 6, 18, 20, 60, 79
Corpse, A 247
Coty, René 359
Courbet, Admiral 226–9, 342
Cremieux, Adolphe 104, 170, 266
Creon 1, 2
Cristiani, Baron de 203
Croix, La 231, 245, 282
Curie, Marie 7, 360 n. 23, 361, 372, 375
Curie, Pierre 7, 361, 375
Daladier, Édouard 359
Dalimier, Albert 212
Dalou, Jules 142, 289, 292
Da Matta, Roberto 323
Danton 196
Darboy, Monsignor 111
Darlan, Admiral 356
Darmes 73
Daudet, Léon 220, 248
David, Felicien 124
David, Jacques-Louis 34, 41, 43–7, 101–2, 165, 288, 373
Déat, Marcel 356
death:
‘bad’ 274–8, 281, 288, 291
Catholic 282–3, 291
‘good’ 274–8
Romantic 280–1, 291
Debray, Régis 242
Dejeante 198 (p.416)
Delacroix, Eugène 102, 250
Delbet 172
Delbos, Yvon 357
Delecluze, E.-J. 89, 115
Delescluze, Charles 92, 96, 98–9
Delestraint, General 372
Denfert-Rochereau, Colonel 205
Derby 50–1
Déroulède, Paul 193, 198–203, 216, 242
Descartes 21, 27, 33 n. 55
Deschanel, Paul 170, 197, 218
Désespéré, Le 195
Desille 36
Devin du Village, Le 50
Diderot, Denis 26
Douglas, Mary 23
Doumer, Paul 170, 214, 293, 302, 308
Doumergue, Gaston 170, 231–2, 247, 275
Dreyfus affair 170, 198, 211, 216, 220, 242–4, 248, 325, 346, 380
Drieu la Rochelle, Pierre 243, 246
Duclerc 189
Ducros, Joseph 119–22
Dufaure 122, 124–5
Duguesclin 61
Duhem, Pierre 237
Dujardin-Beaumetz, Henry 249
Dupavillon, Christian 371 n. 53, 374 n. 67
Dupuy, Charles 159, 198
Durkheim, Émile 3, 260
Eboué, Felix 357–8
École de Mars 48, 51
École Polytechnique 94
Edelfelt 240–1
Edict of Nantes 119
effigy 18, 27, 29, 30, 36, 46, 62
eight May 142, 354, 356, 368
eighteen August 356, 368
eighteen June 356, 363
eleven November 142, 215, 219, 223–4, 354, 356
Eliade, Mircea 309
Élouard, Paul
Enfantin 115
Epinal, image of 146, 298
Ére nouvelle, L’ 173
Estates General 25
Eteokles 1, 2
eulogy 22, 117, 131, 385–6
Evénement, L’ 86, 128
Exelmans, General 94
Faidherbe, General 170, 205, 219
Falateuf 193
Falguière 302
Fallières, Armand 198 n. 122
fatherland:
altar of 51
Athenian funerals and 381–2
Déroulède’s coup d’état 201–2
family and 271–3
funeral of Bara and Viala 44
funeral of Béranger 84
funeral of Courbet 229
funeral of Gambetta 190–3
funeral of Lepeletier 41
funeral of Mirabeau 31
funeral of Rouget de Lisle 212
funeral of victims of 1848 Revolution 104
martyrs for 277 n. 31, 282, 293–4
musicians and 251
Panthéon and 21–7, 30, 63, 153–4, 172
pantheonization of 1889 209
Republic and memory of 159
Return of the Ashes 75
role in school 139
sacred and 260–1, 266
science and 236
unity and 349–51
Unknown Soldier 216–19, 223
see also patrie
Faure, Félix 170, 239, 283, 293, 302, 329, 343, 345, 347 n. 51
funeral of 197–203, 315, 331
national mourning of 308
tomb of 340
Fauré, Gabriel 250–1, 361
Favre, Jules 98, 179, 208
Fénelon 27
Fernandez, James 348
Ferry, Jules:
art as education 249
civic festivals 272
colonialism and 225–6
founding fathers 170
funeral of 166 n. 5, 188, 299, 301
funeral of Bert 230–1
funeral of Courbet 227–8
funeral of Gambetta 192
funeral of Noir 98
funeral of Thiers 186
notion of citizenship 141
notion of great man 144
positivism and 145, 266
republican pedagogy 137
scientism and 235
Unknown Soldier 222
festival(s) 29, 159
of Concord 140
exclusive 28, 29 (p.417)
of Federation 28, 33, 35, 157, 196, 309, 311, 349
funerary 165
law 157
of the Paris Commune 107, 140
patriotic 51
public 157
revolutionary 45, 50 n. 107, 52
Thermidorian 48
of union 28
Fiaux, Louis 212
Fieschi 65
fifteen August 55, 79, 80
Figaro, Le 134, 173, 179, 194, 357
First Empire 54–9, 79, 321
First Republic 172
Firth, Raymond 268
Flaubert, Gustave 101 n. 42, 186
Flight of the Marseillaise 212
Floquet 124, 207
Floret, Paul-Coste 358
Flourens, Gustave 98–9
Foch, Marshal:
Arc de Triomphe and 234, 318
Catholic death 291
cost of funeral 287
funeral of 224, 278, 350, 379
funeral oration for 266
funerary crowd 294, 329, 340, 360
funerary decoration at home 293
funerary decoration in the street 316, 343
funerary vehicle 323
last days of 279
last words of 282
tomb of 173, 276
transfer of the body 299
victory parade of 1919 217
Fonvielle, Ulrich de 98
Foucault, Michel 305
four September 110–11, 179, 201, 213, 219, 223
fourteen July:
army and 205, 321
bicentennial of the French Revolution 374
bill of 155
commemoration of collective events 145
Déroulède and 199
as a dual commemoration 157, 196
fifteen August and 79
First Empire 54–5
Fifth Republic 368
Fourth Republic 356, 362
July Monarchy 65, 73, 92
model of street decoration 316
mourning for Carnot 308 n. 17
pantheoniztion of 1889 and 207–8
radicals and 166–7
as rite of passage 268–9
Rouget de Lisle and 210–11
sacred time 309
simultaneous celebration of 343
study of 8
Third Republic 141–3
Unknown Soldier 224
Vichy regime 354
victory parade 217
Fourtou, de 174–5, 179–80
Foy, General 89, 91, 92
France, Anatole 170, 243–8, 281, 284
Franklin, Benjamin 36
Freedom of Funeral Law 149
Freemasons 58, 118, 138, 190, 194, 231, 248, 261, 283, 326
freethinkers 116–21, 124–5, 130, 149–50, 283, 326
French Section of the Workers’ International 97
Freppel, Charles-Émile 149, 228–30
Freud, Sigmund 39
Freycinet, Charles de 229, 236
Frochot 31
Galileo 22
Gallieni, General 311
Gambetta, Léon:
brochure describing the funeral of 347 n. 51
burial of 273
colonization and 225
commemoration of Baudin 96
cost of funeral of 287
eulogy of 338–9
farewell crowd 294, 329
founding fathers 170
four September 213
fourteen July 141
funeral of 188–96, 198, 317
funeral of Bernard 237
funeral of Bert 229
funeral of Noir 98
funeral of Thiers 174–87
Ministry of Fine Arts 248
painting of the body 292
positivism 145, 266
presentation of the body 292–3
republican funerals of 1870s 129–32
republican officers 205
republican pedagogy 137
republican strategy 126–7
Third Republic and funeral 350
train transporting the body 341, 387
transfer of the body to Paris 298, 301
transfer of heart to the Panthéon 168, 218–23
truce of death and funeral of 348
Gance, Abel 53
Gardel 212
Garnier, Charles 289, 302
Garnier, Jules 174
Garnier-Pagès, L. A. 101 (p.418)
Gasparin 41
Gaulle, Charles de 232, 234, 362–8, 370–1, 375–7, 389
funeral of 366–7, 379
Gaullists 357–8, 362–4, 372, 378
Gaulois, Le 199, 230
Geertz, Clifford 5, 12 n. 49, 310
Gémier, Firmin 166 n. 6, 248
Genet-Delacroix, Marie-Claude 250
Geneviève, St 20, 152, 155
abbey of 20
church of (old) 20, 21
church of (new), see Panthéon
day of 60
remains of 80
Gennes, Pierre-Gilles de 375
Gerlier, Cardinal 359
Giesey, Ralph 18
Girard, René 38 n. 69, 340
Girarden 49
Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry 368, 372, 378
Gloria Victis 193
Goblet, René 230
Goffman, Erving 30
Gossec, François 34, 212, 288
Goude, Jean-Paul 374
Gounod, Charles 251, 361
Grand Orient 138 n. 8
Great Being 145, 265–6
Great man/men:
death of 274–5, 279–82
denial of politics 350
early Third Republic 153, 155–6, 159–60
family of 271–4
fatherland and 25–6
figure of 22–3, 50, 173
Fourth Republic 358, 362
funerals of the French Revolution 27–33
funerary oration 339
in the inscription of the Panthéon 21–2
July Monarchy 63, 65
Louis XVIII 60
Mitterrand 369, 372
Napoleon Bonaparte 55–6
posterity 265–9, 317
presentation of the body of 290–303
republican funerals of 1870s 131
the scientist as 235
Second Empire 80
transformation into ancestor 285, 306–7, 320–2, 333–5
Voltaire as 35–6
the writer as 241
Great woman 23, 272, 375
Great Writer 241, 243
Grégoire, Abbé 371, 373–4
Grévy, Jules 136, 170, 205, 292
Grousset, Paschal 97
Guérin, Jules 201–2
Guibert, Cardinal 227, 283
Guillaume, Eugène 289
Guitry, Sacha 356
Guizot, François 73, 77, 89, 100
Guyot-Dessaigne, Jean 170
Habert, Marcel 202–3
Halbwachs, Maurice 3, 4, 311, 378
Halévy, Daniel 117, 185
Handelman, Don 304–5, 307
Hanotaux, Gabriel 214, 217
Haussmann, Georges Eugène 147, 312–15
Hébert 48
Help Yourself and Heaven Will Help You 92
Hendricks, Barbara 376
Henri IV 60, 70
Henriot, Philippe 355–6
Hermant, Abél 214
Hérold, Ferdinand 194
Herriot, Édouard 166 n. 6, 214, 219, 245, 247, 358–9
Hertz, Robert 263, 292
Heusch, Luc de 260
History of the 1848 Revolution 101
Hitler, Adolph 355
Hoche, General 47, 50, 80, 196, 206–9, 273 n. 17
Hôtel de Ville (Paris) 63, 110, 112, 313, 342, 355, 370
How to glorify those who died for the Fatherland? 214
Hubert, Henri 277
Hugo, François-Victor 127, 130, 132, 134, 146
Hugo, Victor:
Baudin’s commemoration 96, 208
birthday celebration 5
burial of Gambetta 190
centenary of 158, 172, 251
coffin of 323
committee of funeral of 289
compared with France 248
cost of funeral 287
crowd in funeral 329
cult of supernatural 146
farewell crowd 294–5
funeral and pantheonization of 172, 326, 331, 349
funeral of and Lavisse’s manual 162
funeral of as example of civil ceremony 195, 198, 228
funeral of as example of grand ceremony 208, 211, 219, 234, 239, 248, 309, 318, 366
funeral of Courbet 226
funeral of Lamarque in Les Misérables 93, 199
funeral of Thiers 183 (p.419)
funerals of the 1870s and 127–35
Halbwachs and funeral of 378
Hymne for martyrs 64, 209
image of the family 273
image of the grandfather 272
last days of 279, 281–2
mournful street decoration 316
opposition to pantheonization 348
orators in funeral of 338
photographed by Nadar 241
presentation of the body 291–2, 301–2, 313
Return of the Ashes of Napoleon 78
school manuals and 236
Third Republic and funeral of 350
transfer of the body of 301
Huguenots 119–20
Humanité, L’ 245, 247, 357, 361–2
Hunt, Lynn 3, 260
Huntziger, General 355
Hymne 64, 209, 222
Ihl, Olivier 141, 272 n. 5
Île des Peupliers 49, 50
Illustration, L’ 194
Indépendence belge, L’ 84
Ingres 250
Insurgé, L’ 98
Institute of France 141, 145, 188
Intellectual and Moral Reform of France 236
International, L’ 210
International Exhibition 152, 249
Intransigeant, L’ 223
Invalides:
broadcast of ceremony 344
burial of the Bonapartes 82
burial of Juin 366
burial of Lyautey 231–4, 366
burial of Rouget de Lisle 211–12
compared with the Panthéon 54
farewell ceremony 335, 340
Foch’s tomb 276
Fourth Republic and 360
funeral of Courbet 227–8
funeral of Thiers 179
funerals of the Moral Order 110–12
funerals of officers (Third Republic) 205
in the hierarchy of state funerals 168–9
Napoleon’s tomb 80, 173
in the Old Regime 57–9
Return of the Ashes of Napoleon 70–9
sacred centre and 312
Irène 34
Jardin, A. 95
Jaurès, Jean:
communist procession 318–19, 348
cost of pantheonization 287
crowd in the pantheonization 329
farewll ceremony in Albi 341 n. 22
funeral of Blum and 358–9
lying in state 301
Mitterrand’s visit to the Panthéon 370
pantheonization as triumph 350
plans for pantheonization 166 n. 6, 245
posterity and 267
presentation of the coffin 340
procession to the Panthéon 320, 326
radio broadcast of the pantheonization 344
reaction to the pantheonization 173
state funeral’s list and 168
Jaurès, Vice-Admiral 205
Jeanne d’Arc 20, 142, 199, 354, 363
Jeanneney, Jean-Noël 373
Joantho, Louis de 212
Joffre, Marshal:
crowd in the funeral 329, 360
funeral of and the Great War 224
funeral of as triumph 350
last days of 276, 279–81
lying in state 301
national mourning and funeral of 309, 343
presentation of the coffin 340
victory parade of 1919 217
Joffrin 191
John XXIII 279
Joinville, Prince de 72–3
Joliot-Curie, Frédéric 361–2
Joliot-Curie, Irène 361, 364
Joseph II 57
Joubert, General 47, 50
Joutard, Philippe 4
Juin, Marshal 366
July Column 54, 66, 74, 101–6
July Monarchy 81, 321
fall of 87, 101
royal funerals 63–79
subversive funerals 92–5
Kantianism 139
Kantorowicz, Ernst 40, 143 n. 35
Kearl, Michael 136
Kelly, George 382
Kertzer, David 10, 348
King’s Two Bodies 40
Kléber, General 206
Kohl, Helmut 379
Krim, Abd el- 232
Kuss 110
La Barre 36
La Bordas 99
Lacroix, Millies 151
Lafayette, Marquis de 63–4, 91, 94, 180, 186, 372 (p.420)
Laffitte, Jacques 91, 115, 180
Laffitte, Pierre 196
La Forge, Anatole de 272
Laisant 207
Lakanal 372
Lallemand, Nicolas 89
Lamarque, General 70, 93–5, 134, 180, 186, 199, 203
Lamartine, Alphonse de 82 n. 69, 100
Lamennais 115
Lang, Jack 374
Langevin, Paul 357
Lannes, Marshal 56
Lanson, Gustave 235, 241
Lanterne, La 194, 294
Las Cases 144
Lasies 202
La Tour d’Auvergne 208–9, 330
Lattre de Tassigny, General de 234, 359–60, 366
Laval, Pierre 233, 355
Lavisse, Ernest 157, 162, 214
Lavoisier 372
Lazowski 41
Leach, Edmund 334
Lebrun, Albert 240
Le Chapelier 31
Leclerc de Hauteclocque, General 234, 359–60, 368
Lecomte, General 111–12
Ledru-Rollin 125, 127, 129–30, 132, 180
Lefevre, André 222
Légende des siècles, La 135
Legion of Honour 58, 124–5
Legitimists 72, 93, 115, 175
Léon, Léonie 185, 187, 189 n. 86
Léon, Paul 251
Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, Michel 27, 31, 39–41, 45–6, 272
Le Royer, Elie 120, 123
Leygues, Georges 220–1
Lhande 294
Ligue des Patriotes 193, 200, 211, 216, 242
Lincoln, Abraham 386–8
Lindenberg, Daniel 158
Lisbonne 240
Littérature 243
Littré, Émile 115, 145, 230, 283
Lockroy, Edouard 133, 154, 192, 281
Loti, Pierre 246, 286 n. 71
Loubet, Émile 198 n. 122, 199–201, 203
Louis IX 18
Louis XIII 18, 19
Louis XIV 19, 41, 57–8, 119
Louis XV 19, 20, 55, 57, 119
Louis XVI 31, 56–7, 59–61, 111, 119, 261
Louis XVII 60–1
Louis XVIII 59–62, 70, 80, 111
Louis-Philippe 58, 63–5, 69–70, 73–4, 81, 87, 94, 100, 102, 155, 210, 233
Louis the Pious 17
Lucas, Colin 328
Lukes, Steven 10
Lustiger, Cardinal 373, 377
Lyautey, Marshal Hubert 231–4, 281, 339, 347 n. 51, 366
MacMahon, Marshal 110, 112–13, 121–2, 136, 159–60, 175–88, 197, 237, 239, 274, 347 n. 52
Madeleine, church of 60, 74, 90, 102, 104, 106, 179–81, 251, 335, 361
Madier de Montjau 154
Maginot, André 221, 223, 235, 282
Magnard, François 134
Maillard 132
Malraux, André 364, 367, 378
Manuel, Jacques 64, 91–2, 94, 98, 115, 180
Marat, Jean-Paul 6, 27, 31, 32, 40, 45, 47–9, 160
funeral of 41–3
painting of death scene of (Marat assasiné) 46–7
pantheonization of 47–9
Marceau, General 206–9, 330
Marcère, de 124
Marcombes, Philippe 170
Marianne 54–5, 143, 167, 197, 291, 298
Marie-Antoinette 60, 111
Marin, Louis 233, 320
Marseillaise, La (the song) 24, 52, 63, 65, 72, 77, 99, 142, 183, 202, 209–12, 298, 354, 371
Marseillaise, La (the newspaper) 97, 99
Marsuppini, Carlo 385
Martin, Alexandre 170
Martin, Henri 201
martyr(s) 277, 373, 388
Christian 227, 387
cult of 41, 43–4, 46–7
of Liberty 6, 39, 40, 47, 48, 51, 101–2, 272, 281, 382
patriotic 230
revolutionary 29, 39, 45, 46, 104, 108–9
for science 277 n. 31
Massy, Robert de 125
Maunoury, Maurice 216–17
Maupas 95
Maurras, Charles 245, 247
Mauss, Marcel 277
Mazauric, Claude 28
Maze 209
Méhémet-Ali 71
Meister, Joseph 237
Méline, Jules 217, 239 (p.421)
Memorial of St Helena 144
memory 207
collective 3, 4, 6, 7, 215
communal 382
of the dead 145
effacement of 1
eternal 160
of future generations 26
group 5
individual’s 3
national 3, 5, 6, 12, 78, 160, 334
official 4–6, 54, 159, 347, 350
school history and 157
Mendés France, Pierre 378
Ménier, Émile 188
Mercié, Antonin 188, 193, 214, 289
Mercier, Louis-Sébastien 27
Mercure, Le 21
mère-patrie 24, 228, 272
Merimée, Prosper 85
Michel, Louise 191, 248, 372
Michelet, Jules 100, 115, 125, 140, 146, 152, 180, 277 n. 31
centenary of 158, 172, 269
funeral of 127–31
Michelin 289
Mignet, François 91, 115, 179
Mignon, Michel 114
Millerand, Alexandre 218, 222
Millevoye 202–3
Mirabeau 13, 21, 26, 36, 48, 50, 64
pantheonization of 30–4
Misérables, Les 93
Mitterrand, François 7, 13, 171, 363, 368–75, 389
funeral of 375–8
Mohammed V 233
Moitte, Jean-Guillaume 60–1
Mollet, Guy 359
Monge, Gaspard 371, 373–4
Moniteur Universel, Le 104–5
Monnet, Jean 371–2, 374
Montbailly 36
Montesquieu 27
Moore, Sally 260, 262
Morin, Edgar 372
Morlot, Cardinal 82
Morny, Duc de 183
Mosse, George 3
Mot d’ordre, Le 178
Moulin, Jean 358, 363–4, 370, 374
Mounier, Baron 77
Muir, Edward 3
Mun, Albert de 229
Municipality Law 151–2
Museum of French Monuments 265
Myerhoff, Barbara 260, 262
Nadar 241, 292
Napoleon I, see Bonaparte, Napoleon
Napoleon III, see Bonaparte, Louis-Napoleon
Napoleon, Jérôme 82
National, Le 68 n. 35, 101
National Guard 32, 34, 36 n. 64, 66, 77, 81, 103, 105
Nettement, Alfred 62
Nicolet, Claude 137, 383
Nixon, Richard 367
Noir, Louis 98
Noir, Victor 97–9, 134, 180, 203
Nollet, General 355
Nora, Pierre 4
Notre-Dame de Fourvière 120
Notre-Dame de Paris, Cathedral of:
broadcast of funeral 344
compared with the Panthéon 172
farewell ceremony 335
firing of gunshots during funeral 343
Fourth Republic and 360
funeral of Carnot 261, 284
funeral of Claudel 361
funeral of Courbet 227
funeral of de Gaulle 367
funeral of Faure 198–9
funeral of Ferdinand-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans 68–9
funeral of Mitterrand 375–7
funeral of Pasteur 239
funeral of Pompidou 368
funeral of Roux 240
funerals of the Old regime 18–19
funerals of Vichy regime 355
Louis XVIII and 60
Moral Order and 111
sacred centre and 311–12
Second Empire and 79–80, 82
Offering for Liberty 212
Ollivier, Émile 97, 99, 185
Opportunists 141, 155–6, 165–6, 189, 226, 229–30, 253, 380
Origins of Contemporary France 155
Orleanists 72, 175, 178
Orléans, (Ferdinand-Philippe), Duc d’ 8, 68–9
Orléans, (Louis-Philippe) Duc d’, see Louis-Philippe
Ozouf, Mona 27, 28, 48, 139, 158, 171–3, 192, 373
Pagnerre 105
Paine, Thomas 372
Painlevé, Paul 236, 247, 292, 336
Panthéon:
aversion of Marat to 43
bicentennial of the French Revolution 372–4
broadcast of a ceremony 344 (p.422)
burial of Bara and Viala 43–4
burial of Baudin 96
burial of Carnot 261, 284
burial of Hugo 309
burial of Jaurès 166, 245, 248, 319
burial of Lepeletier 41
burial of Marat 47–9
burial of Mirabeau 30–3
burial of Moulin 363–4
burial of Perrin and Langevin 357
burial of Rousseau 49–50
burial of Schoelcher and Eboué 358
burial of Voltaire 33–7
burial of Zola 313
centenary of the French Revolution 206–9
commemoration of World War II 356–7
decorative programme 153–4
during the July Monarchy 92–3
early Third Republic and 153–6, 161–2
farewell ceremony and 335–6
First Empire and 55–6
in the French Revolution 20–3, 25–8
funeral of Bert 231
funeral of Courbet 226–7
funeral of Faure 198–9
funeral of Lamarque 94
funeral of Poincaré 301
funeral of Rouget de Lisle 210
funeral of Thiers 181
funerary decoration 316
in the hierarchy of state funerals 168–9
importance in the 19th cent. 54
July Monarchy and 63–6
Louis XVIII and 60
Mitterrand and 369–70, 378
Place du 77, 83, 208
posterity and 267
proposals of a transfer to 170–4, 250
Quinet and 152–3
sacred centre and 312
Second Empire and 80
transfer of Gambetta’s heart 218–23
Unknown Soldier 215–17
Vichy regime 355
Paré, François 46
Parfait, Noël 209
Paris 194
Paris, Comte de 228
Paris Guide 152
Paris, Nicolas 40
Parry, Jonathan 264–5, 274
Partisan’s Song 364, 378
Pasteur, Louis 236–40, 266, 279, 301, 342
Pasteur Institute 239–40
Pastoret, Marquis de 21–2, 31, 33
patrie, la 22 n. 14, 23–5, 30, 44, 64, 153, 231, 272, 296, 342
Patrie, La (journal) 230
Pays, Le 133
Péguy, Charles 158, 171, 236, 277, 312–13, 327, 336, 357, 380
Pelletan, Camille 194
Pellieux, General 201
Père-Lachaise cemetery 147–8, 179–80, 332, 364
funeral of Arago 83
funeral of Béranger 84–5
funeral of Bernard 237
funeral of Canrobert 335
funeral of Commune’s soldiers 107
funeral of Constant 92
funeral of Faure 198–202, 340
funeral of Foy 89
funeral of Gambetta 190, 194–5
funeral of Manuel 91
funeral of Noir 98–9
funeral of Talma 115
funeral of Thiers 182, 185, 187–8
grave of Baudin 96
monument for Lecomte and Clément-Thomas 112
monument for the soldiers of the Great War 221
Mur des Fédérés 319
republican funerals in the 1870s 129–30
Peret, Benjamin 243
Péricard, Jacques 223
Pericles 22, 381–2, 385, 388
Périer, Casimir 89, 93, 115, 180, 186
Perrin, Jean 357
Pétain, Marshal 217, 232–3, 339
Peter the Great 57
Petit Lavisse 157
Peyrat 96, 289, 338
Picqaurt, General 170
Pietri, François 233
pilgrimage 269, 279, 294, 298, 319–20, 333, 340, 348
Piques, Place des 41
Plutarch 22
Podgorny, Nicolas 367
Poetics 39
Poincaré, Raymond 170, 211–12, 238–9, 251, 266, 289, 301, 313, 323
Polybius 383
Polyneices 1, 49
Pompidou, Georges 366–7, 376–7
funeral of 368, 379
Ponsot, Henri 233
Populaire, Le 68 n. 35, 358
Popular Front 143, 167, 380
positivism 139
positivists 147 (p.423)
Positivist Calendar 144
posterity 26, 31, 50, 153, 188, 265–7, 281, 374
Pothuau, Admiral 185
Poulat, Émile 261
Promenade of the Corpses 88, 100–2, 180
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph 115, 171
Proust, Antonin 154, 302
Puymège, Gérard de 216
Queille, Henri 357
Quelen, de 114
Quincy, Quatremère de 27
Quinet, Edgar 56, 96, 115, 125–33, 137, 152–3, 160, 277 n. 31
Quotidien, Le 245
radicals 153–6, 166, 253, 380
Raffaëlli 214
Raffin, Léonce 195, 283
Ranc, Arthur 119, 189
Rappaport, Roy 11
Rappel, Le 118, 124, 187, 281
Raspail, Benjamin 155, 161
Raspail, François-Vincent 128, 132
Reconnaissance nationale 214
Reichstadt, Duke of 355
Reinach, Joseph 189, 199, 231
Religion of Humanity 145–6, 153, 265
Rémusat, Charles de 66, 70, 74
Renan, Ernest 159–60, 236, 242, 248, 277 n. 31, 289, 301, 350
Republic of the Dukes 117
Republic of Professors 236
Republican Union 150
République française, La 141, 177, 196, 225, 228, 230–1, 237, 349
République, Place de la 84, 182, 194, 219, 319, 368
Restoration, see Bourbon Restoration
Return of the Ashes, see Napoleon I
Reveil, Le 96
Review of the Empire 78
Revue des deux mondes, La 71, 238
Reynaud, Jean 85
Reynaud, Paul 232
Ribemont-Dessaignes 243
Ribot 238
Richet, Charles 238
Rinaldi, Anoel 136
rite:
funerary 1, 13, 17
monarchical 17
of passage 3, 9, 12, 17, 60, 143, 252–3, 262–4, 267–9, 294, 301, 304–5, 308, 343, 370
of state 197
ritual 2, 5–7, 10, 11
commemorative 5
court 19
political 10
of presentation 304–5
theory of 2 n. 7
of transformation 305–6
Robejort 50
Robespierre, Maximilien 43–4, 47–8, 50, 166 n. 4, 372–3
Rochefort, Henri 97, 99, 228, 230
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Duc de la 90, 92, 180
Roget, General 202
Rohault 21
Roland, Lieutenant 158
Rolland, Romain 209, 279, 356–7
Romain, Jules 247
Rosenstiel 50
Rostand, Edmond 212, 214–15
Rouget de Lisle 209–12, 298, 372
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 4, 32, 33, 36, 52, 60 n. 14, 64, 141, 241, 336
centenary of death 142, 158, 172
pantheoniztion of 47–50
Rousseau, Samuel 251
Rousso, Henri 4
Roustan, Marion 165
Roux, Émile 240, 281
royaume 24
Roys, Marquise des 208
Rude 211, 250
sacred:
centre 340, 344
realm of 260–2, 278–9
remains 211
space 280, 310–19
territory 160
transfer of 17, 41, 46
Sacred Heart 113
Sacred Union 210, 218
Sacy, Silvestre de 185
Sahlins, Marshall 11, 288
Saint-Beuve 115
Saint-Denis, church of 18, 19, 20, 25, 27, 28, 56, 59–62, 69, 74, 82, 160
Saint-Hilaire, Barthelemy 149, 179
Saint-Jean-d’Angely, Regnaud de 37
St Louis, church of 57–8, 80, 205, 335
St Peter’s Cathedral 21
Saint-Saëns, Camille 214, 251, 361
Salutati, Coluccio 385
Sand, George 62
Sangnier, Marc 220
Sartre, Jean-Paul 368
Schlanger, Judith 45
Schneider, Eugene 99
Schoelcher, Victor 357–8, 370
Schonen, de 91 (p.424)
School Battalions 139, 193
Schumann, Maurice 378
Schwartz, Barry 5, 387–8
scientism 235, 238–9
second December 79
Second Empire 79–86, 110, 123, 153, 175, 179, 212, 248
civil funerals 115
official ceremonies 321
state funerals 169, 287
subversive funerals 95–100
Second Republic 7, 82, 83, 88, 100–7, 266, 380
Seignobos, Charles 214
Shils, Edward 310
Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph 24
Simon, Jules 111, 122, 129, 147 n. 54, 175, 185, 249, 335
Simon, N. F. 215
Sirven 36
Society of the Friends of the People 92
Society of Nations 165
Social Contract 49
socialists 73, 113, 134, 167, 177–9, 232, 253
Sophocles 2
Sorbonne 196, 235, 238–9
Soufflot, Jacques-Germain 21, 59 n. 13
Soult, Marshal 73
Soupault, Philippe 246
Souvenir français 213
Speech act 11
Spuller, Eugène 126, 189, 231, 301
Stanton, Edwin 387
Steinheil, Édouard 198 n. 124
Steinheil, Marguerite 198 n. 124
Steinlein 214
Stern, Daniel, see Agoult, Comtesse d’
Strauss, Paul 221
Suhard, Cardinal 355
Supreme Being 48
Surat, Monsignor 111
Taine, Hippolyte 155, 233, 242
Talma 114
Tardieu, André 273
Te Deum 79
Temple of the Fatherland 21
Temple of Great Men 49
Temple of Mars and of Military Virtues 58
Temple of Memory 44
Temple of the Nation 21
Temps, Le 118, 120, 123, 173, 239, 248, 276, 278
Temps des cerises 376
Tenot, E. 96
Thibaudet, Albert 83, 236, 244
Thiers, Adolphe:
army parade of 1871 122
catafalque of 302
conservative republicanism 127
cost of funeral of 286
death of 291
early Third Republic and funeral of 350
forbids the celebration of 14 July 141
funeral of 174–88, 274, 323, 329, 347
funeral of Manuel 91
funeral of Talma 115
funeral of the victims of the July Revolution 66
funerals of the Moral Order 110
military law of 1872 204
presentation of the body of 292–4
resignation of in 1873 118–19
restoration of house of 112
Return of the Ashes of Napoleon 70–2
votes against civil funerals 120
Thomas, Ambroise 289
Thomas, Louis-Vincent 287
Thucydides 381
Tiersot, Julien 212
Tirard 207, 209
Triumph of the Republic 142
Trelat 92
Tronchet, François-Denis 56
Truesdell, Matthew 81
Trystram 227
Tudesq, A. J. 95
Tuileries, Palace of 59, 63, 74, 112 n. 8, 210
Turenne 58, 61, 173
Turner, Victor 269, 304
Turquet 289
Tzara, Tristan 243
Union, L’ 124
Universe, L’ 124, 133, 185, 195, 237, 347
Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man 372
Unknown Soldier 161, 215–24, 273, 313, 318, 329, 350, 367, 383
Vacquerie, Auguste 281, 289
Valéry, Paul 360
Vallès, Jules 98–9, 108
Van Gennep, Arnold 262–3, 270, 308, 347
Vauban 58
Vendôme:
Column of 70, 74, 77, 107, 112
Place 41, 94
Vercingétorix 376
Vergniaud 41
Versailles:
Palace of 19, 32, 311
government of 107, 112
Veuillot, Louis 185
Viala, Agricol 40, 43–5, 47, 50, 161
Victory Parade of 1919 217, 222
Viel-Castel, Horace de 85 (p.425)
Villèle, de 92, 155
Villette, Marquis Charles de 32, 34
Visconti 80, 173
Viviani, René 210–11
Voguë, Eugène-Melchior de 177
Voltaire 4, 21, 26, 47, 49, 60 n. 14, 64, 160, 241
centenary of death of 142, 158
pantheoniztion of 32–7
Voltaire, Le 172, 190, 196
Vovelle, Michel 146, 301
Waldeck-Rousseau 155, 203
Walesa, Lech 375
Weber, Max 264
Welch 121
Westminster abbey 21
What is a Nation? 159
What is the Third Estate? 24
Willaime, Jean-Paul 261
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 6
Zola, Émile:
banquet honouring Berthelot and 238
consequences of his pantheonization 211, 216, 220
Daudet and the funeral of 248
Fauré and the pantheonization of 251
pantheonization of 320 n. 46, 330
posterity and 267
rewarded by the Republic 170, 242 (p.426) (p.427) (p.428)