Hostility towards Tsarist Russia perceived as the power most responsible for Polish misfortunes became one of the dominant elements in the Polish patriotic and revolutionary tradition in the nineteenth century. This chapter discusses Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski's attempt to bridge the gulf between Poland and Russia. Czartoryski was the most distinguished Polish statesman of the period, his career extraordinary, and emerged as one of the key personalities in Russia during Tsar Alexander I's reign, holding office as Russian deputy and then acting foreign minister in 1802–6. One of Europe's most ardent critics of Napoleonic imperialism, he sought to direct Russian policy and to rally all the states of Europe against the French dictator.
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