In England transportation became the most severe punishment to be used, second only to the death penalty. This was the method of sending convicts out of the country to an entirely new world far from their relatives and fellow countryman. Detailed information about these outcasts, from their social and geographic origins, to their ages, sex, and occupations, is provided in this chapter. These outcasts came from various part of England, ranging from the Cornish cliffs to the Scottish highlands. The smallest number of outcasts came from Scotland and the largest number were Irish. The largest number of outcasts were native Englishmen sentenced by the English courts. During the 17th century many convicts, including both male and female, were sent away.
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