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Old Friends New EnemiesVolume 2: The Pacific War 1942-1945$
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Arthur J. Marder, Mark Jacobsen, and John Horsfield

Print publication date: 1990

Print ISBN-13: 9780198201502

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198201502.001.0001

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The Grim Allied Outlook

The Grim Allied Outlook

(p.3) I The Grim Allied Outlook
Old Friends New Enemies

Arthur J. Marder

Oxford University Press

Events had moved swiftly after the attack on Pearl Harbor of December 8, 1941. Within hours, the Japanese troops invaded Malaya and Thailand and launched a probing attack on Hong Kong. The first section of this chapter describes the quick Japanese invasion, the strategic significance of the Malay Barrier, the condition of Allied naval forces, the lack of strategic direction, and the American mission of defending the Philippines. Much of the burden on the Royal Navy side fell on Sir George Layton, the commander-in-chief of the Eastern Fleet. The second section describes his ruthless but effective withdrawal of the US Asiatic Fleet, and the pre-war undertakings that were thrown over. Layton's major effort went into the attempt to keep trade and convoys moving. The last section describes the protection of shipping for Singapore, the success of Japanese aircraft, and the Navy's failure to halt the Japanese.

Keywords:   Japanese invasion, Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, United States, George Layton, Singapore

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