The central concept of the Naxalite metaphysic was the characterization of the Indian economy as ‘semi-feudal, semi-colonial’. The characterization is not so much the description of a state of affairs as an injunction to the action of a particular kind. The characterization also does not refer so much to facts of the economy in a ‘materialist’ sense, but to perceived experiences of personality which are reified into an economic terminology. Semi-feudalism accrues from a schema which sees the Indian economy as progressing from a state of feudalism to a state of capitalism, in which semi-feudalism is an intermediate state. This chapter also considers the agrarian conditions in India and the question of the mode of production.
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