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The Inner WorldA Psychoanalytical Study of Childhood and Society in India$

Sudhir Kakar

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780198077152

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198077152.001.0001

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(p.265) Index

(p.265) Index

Source:
The Inner World
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
adharma 46
Adi 105
adulthood 10
Aitareya Brahmana 68
anthropological studies 4
Apfelbaum, Bernard 26
ardhanarishwara 187–8
Arjuna–Urvasi myth 109–11
Arlow, Jacob 174
Arundhati myth 79–80, 102
asamprajnata samadhi 20
asana 25
asramadharma 41, 47–50, 239
Atharvaveda 67
atmanam viddhi 29
Autobiography of a Yogi 156
autonomy 41
bad mother 99–116, 122, 199
defences of male child against 111–16
fantasy of sexual mother 108–11
images 101–2
and post-partum taboo on sexual intercourse 103–6
psychoanalytic aspect 102
bania 149
Bekenntnis 15
Bhagavad Gita 169
Bhagavata Purana 173
bhakti, psychosocial meaning of 170
Bhakti cult 124, 169
Bhupendranath 197
birth ritual, Indian tradition 222–4
bisexuality 187–9
Boss, Medard 31
brahman 19
Brahmavaivarta Purana 169
Brecht, Bertolt 192
Buber, Martin 33
caste (jati) 146–50
Chandragupta 7
characteristics of a people 8
child/childhood 10; see also mother–infant relationship
(p.266) in Ayurvedic system of Indian medicine 226–9
causal thinking 119
in classical Sanskrit literature 234–8
cultural influence in development 120–1
differentiation of himself from his mother 117
in extended families 138–9
in Indian tradition 222–4
Indian tradition vs Western tradition 242–6
in Laws of Manu 224–6
in Mahabharata 230–4
mode of experiencing the world 119–20
primary mental processes 117–19
role of the father 155–7
the ‘second birth’ and consequences in identity development 150–60, 185, 203
stages in Indian tradition 239–42
toddler, training of 116–17
child-rearing practices 100
chitta state 25–7, 53
location of 28
unconscious 54
Civilization and Its Discontents 10
communal conscience 160–1
conscious state 21, 62
Cormack, Margaret 69
culture and personality formation 9–13
evolutionary aspects of individual and 11
heredity vs environment debate 9
ideal ‘healthy’ personality 11
innate potentials of individuals 11
mother–infant relationship 12–13
nature vs nurture debate 9
in psychoanalytic context 10–11
social human being vs individual human being 13
social institutions, role of 11
values 12
Datta, Vishwanath 195
daughterhood 67–8
dependence 40
depersonalization, phenomenon of 30–1
desa 42
Devereaux, George 10
Devi, Bhuvaneshwari 196, 197, 200, 204
dharma 41–50
as image of the life cycle (asramadharma) 47–50
sanatan or ‘eternal’ 45
social aspect of 45–7
as the spirit 44
in terms of social relations 41
treatises on 41
Dharmasastras 13, 41
Dhed community 115
digambara 183
ego, development of 12, 62
Freud’s model 22
in India 126
(p.267) infancy and 116–26
role of mother 121–2
ego-oriented reality, conception of 23
emotional self-reliance 2
ergotropic arousal 20–1
Erikson, Erik 2, 11, 19, 193
extrasensory perception 23
family, extended
authority and hierarchy in 142–4
bonding in 144–6
caste identity 146–50
criteria of ‘jointness’ 137–8
definition 136
and evolution of individual families 138
structure of 140–2
fatalism 54
feeling-states, Freud’s 20
feminine identity, in India 123
adult personality 73
Arundhati myth 79–80
bad mother 99–116
cultural devaluation of women 70
daughterhood 67–8
feminine aggression 69
good mother, quality of 91–9
as a Hindu woman 66
legend of Nala and Damayanti 77
at marriage 81–3
married woman’s duties 78
maternal affection reserved for daughters 70–1
motherhood 65–6
in patriarchal societies 68–9
pregnancy and anticipation of motherhood 87–90
psychosocial stages to womanhood 66
Savitri myth 77
sexual development, in Hindu daughters 79
Sita, personality of 73–81
status within her husband’s family 83–7
of village deities in south India 124
virtues of good wife 78
filial loyalty 137
fraternal solidarity 137
free-floating anxiety 97
Freud, Anna 2
Freud, Sigmund 2, 12
feeling-states 20
psychoanalysis 10, 216
fusion and separation, relationship between 39–41
fusion–isolation continuum 98
The Future of an Illusion 10
Ganesha myth 112–14, 134n95
generational family 137
girl/girlhood 67–8, 151
puberty years 72
sexual development, in Hindu daughters 79
training of girls 72–3
good mother 122
in autobiographical accounts and short stories and novels 95
emotional quality of nurturing 92–3
(p.268) mythological and religious representations 95–6
Govardhan myth 179–80
grandiose self 153
guru–chela relationship 142
Hartmann, Heinz 22
hierarchical system, of extended family 142–4
Hindu culture
dharma 41–50
importance of sexuality 27
karma 50–7
moksha 19–41
values 43
world image 18–19, 23–4
Hindu image of Shakti and Shakta 19–20
Hindu inner world 200
Hindu myth 6
Hindus 9
Hindu social order 44
Hindu ways of liberation see moksha
The Hindu Woman 69
Hiranyakashipu, story of king 46
Hitopadesha 115
Holi festival 170–2
homo hierarchies 140; see also identity, homo hierarchicus element in
Horney, Karen 107
human development in India 2
human imagination 40
Hume, David 8
id, concept of 26–7, 62
idealized parental imago 153
ideal life cycle 49
identity 2; see also feminine identity, in India
caste, 146–50
collective 5
homo hierarchicus element in 158–64
Indian 14
meaning 2
psychosocial 9
imperfect samadhis 20
Indian mythology 46
Indianness 3
Indian personality
essential nature of 7
Megasthenes’s observations 7–8
tension between superego and ego 161–2
Indian society, Max Weber’s analysis of 11
individual ego 22
individual human being 13
infancy and ego 116–26
infantile sexuality 80
The Inner World 15
intrapsychic processes 10
jajmani system 142
joint family 137
Kala 51
Kalika Purana 104
Kaliyanag myth 179–80
karma 50–7
Karma Yoga 33
Kathasaritsagar 115
Kaviranjana 181
Kayastha community 194
Khatris 148
(p.269) Kris, Ernst 24
Krishna bhakti 169
Krishna cult 124, 170, 172–3
Krishna myth 168–82
Lewis, Morris 139
libidinal stages 2
Lingayats 183
Mahabharata 39, 230–4
Mahanirvana Tantra 124
Maharishi, Ramana 20, 39, 59n33
maladhara 28
Manu 73, 106
laws of 224–6
Marriott, McKim 171
marwari 150
matam 23
Matsya Purana 104
maya 23
Medhatithi 73
Megasthenes 7, 40
meta-reality of karma 57
moksha 19–41, 99
and awareness of ‘I’ 22–3
chitta, importance of 25–8
as the goal of life 34
in Hindu texts 20–1
ideal of 31
in India 20
meaning of 19
and rasa 35–8
semantic difficulties in defining 21–2
symbols of 19–20
in Taoism 20
in Upanishads 19
in Western concept 19
mother–infant relationship 12–13, 123
bad mother 99–116
and danger of inversion of emotional roles 100–1
development of sensory presence 62–4
and facilitating environment 64
as a factor in personality formation 64–5
feeding and weaning as communication process 65
good mother, qualities of 91–9
in personality formation 64
process of action–reaction–action 64
psychosocial aspect 64–5
mother–son relationship 70, 95, 101, 103, 151–2, 155–6, 158–9, 177, 196–7, 199–200, 203–4, 208
Munshi, Kanhaiyalal 177
mystic states 20
myth(s) 5
Arjuna–Urvasi 109–11
Arundhati 79–80, 102
Ganesha 112–14
Govardhan 179–80
Kaliyanag 179–80
of Krishna 168–82
Narcissus 183
patriarchal culture 66
Putana 175–8
Savitri 77
Shiva 162, 186–7
Sukra 104–5
Surpanakha 111–12
(p.270) Nala and Damayanti, legend of 77
narcissism 153–5, 158, 166n20, 182, 185, 219–20
Narsingha, Lord 46
national characters 8
Nehru, Jawaharlal 15
Neumann, Erich 101
Nikhilananda 193
Nivedita, Sister 190, 193
Noy, Pinchas 119–20
oceanic feeling 20
oedipal stage, in psychosexual development 158–60
Padma Purana 169
Panchatantra 119
Pande, Shashi 149
penis aculeatus 104
perception–hallucination continuum 21
perception–meditation continuum 21
personality and culture 9–13
phallus worship 184–5
symbolism of 187
pranayama 25
predestination 54
psychoanalytic psychology 3, 22, 62
aspects of Vivekananda’s life 194, 198, 199, 206–8, 210–11
development of ego 12, 24
erotic feelings 102, 159
Freud’s theme 10, 216
imagery of ‘bad mother’ 102–3
importance of anthropological studies in 4
infantile sexuality 80
infant’s need 64–5
phallus worship 182, 185
the ‘second birth’, consequences of 152–3, 185
Shiva worship, perspective 188
Sita legend, from a psychoanalytic and psychosocial perspective 76–7
yoga and 24–41
psychoanalytic therapy 159
psychoanalytic thinking 216
psychological maturity, in India 7
psychosexuality 2
psychosocial stages of growth 2
Erikson model vs Hindu model 48
psychotherapy 35–6, 94, 157, 207
in the West 7, 97
Pumsavana rite 67
purushartha 19
Putana myth 175–8
Radha–Krishna legends 181–2
Radhakrishnan 31
Raja Yoga 24–5, 40–1
esoteric practices of see yoga, practice of
Ramakrishna, Sri 125
rasa 35–8
Rasikapriya 181
reality sense 23
psychoanalytic vision of 32
real time 51
reincarnation 54
Rigveda 41, 183
Rolland, Romain 193
(p.271) Roy, Ram Mohan 14
sahaja samadhi 39
samadhi experiences 20–1
and yoga 24–41
samskara, notion of 55
sarva-vidya-pratistha 34
Savitri myth 77
Shaivites 183
Shiva cult 183
Shiva myth 162
Shiva worship 184
phallic cult of 184–5
Simmel, Edward 61
Singer, Milton 125
Sita, personality of 73–81
Skanda myth 107
Slater, Philip 104
social change, in India 216, 218–19
psychological factor 220–1
social conduct 45
social human being 13
son 49, 65; see also child/childhood
Dasharatha–Rama relation 75
favoured 176
Ganesha myth 113–14
Krishna 182
Manu’s views 89
maternal separation and 151
mother–son relationship 70, 95, 101, 103, 151–2, 155–6, 158–9, 177, 196–7, 199–200, 203–4
oedipal conflict 159
preference for 67–8
Putana myth 177–80
second birth 151–2
Spengler 51
‘spoiling’, theory of 99–100
Spratt, Philip 112, 115
srama 42
Srinivas, M.N. 72
Sukra myth 104–5
superego 12, 161
Surpanakha myth 111–12
svadharma 42–3
realization of 43–4
tabula rasa 52
tatvam 23
Thematic Apperception Test 157
thou-canst-but-try axioms 42
A Thousand and One Nights 68
thou-shalt-not axioms 42
time, movement and direction of 51–2
toilet-training 117
The Transposed Heads 115
trophotropic arousal 20–1
trusteeship, concept of 46
twice-born, idea of 13
unconscious state 53–4, 62
upanayana ceremony 13
vagina dentata 104
Vaisesi-kasutra 41
Vanggaard, Thorkil 184
Vikramaditya’s Adventures 115
Vishnu, Lord 46, 113
Vishnu Purana 169
Vivekananda 25, 28, 31
childhood of 190–208
development of a modern Indian identity 191–2, 215, 217
‘encounter’ with Kali 201–3
idea of social change 216
(p.272) Indian dependence 192–3
vrittis 28
Weltanschauung 11
Yajnavalkya 55–6
yin–yang, concept of 20
yoga, practice of
chitta 25–7
concentrated meditation 29–30
ethical preparation for 25
physiological preparation for 25
pratyahara 25, 28–9
yama and niyama rules 25
Yogananda 95, 156, 163–4
Yogatattva Upanishad 107