The book sought to explore the politics and strategies of dealing with disadvantage and deprivation and to examine whether these need rethinking and reshaping in order to take them forward in India’s quest for equality. The evidence suggests that there are unjustifiable disparities prevailing among different groups as a result of discrimination, lack of equal opportunities, and lack of affirmative action for some groups. Affirmative action policies that seek to promote inclusion of marginalized groups must concern themselves with the multiple dimensions of disadvantage so as to be able to address the conspicuous disadvantages and deprivation of a wider range of groups. Some of these issues are taken up in this chapter, which argues for re-examining the framework of affirmative action in the context of the demands for substantive equality of minorities.
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