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From Pluralism to SeparatismQasbas in Colonial Awadh$
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Mushirul Hasan

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195693232

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195693232.001.0001

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Adab and Political Morality The Story of Three Lives

Adab and Political Morality The Story of Three Lives

(p.167) 5 Adab and Political Morality The Story of Three Lives
From Pluralism to Separatism

Mushirul Hasan

Oxford University Press

Adab refers to the manners and ‘professional’ etiquette that Muslims should follow. Used as a greeting, adab signifies a sense of complete respect and deference. In both Lucknow and Awadh, caste- and community-neutral categorizations remained the social identifiers. Three individuals—Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari—exemplified the family code of right conduct. Without being formal interpreters of the Sharia, all three were wrapped in the folds of the banner of tradition, religion, and traditional morality. They argued that religion helped shape man’s conduct and ideas, but also believed in the political ideal consistent with the spirit of Islam. As exponents of the ‘liberal-humanitarian ideology’, they evolved an inclusive concept of adab without confining and twisting its application to a single national community.

Keywords:   adab, Muslims, Islam, respect, code of right conduct, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Mukhtar Ahmad Ansari, morality, Awadh

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