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India’s Ancient Past$
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R. S. Sharma

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195687859

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195687859.001.0001

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Developments in Philosophy

Developments in Philosophy

(p.276) 29 Developments in Philosophy
India’s Ancient Past

R.S. Sharma

Oxford University Press

Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, and Vedanta are the six schools of philosophy. Samkhya philosophy states that the world owes its creation and evolution more to Nature or prakriti than to God. Practice of control over pleasure, the senses, and bodily organs is central to Yoga school. Nyaya believe that salvation can be obtained through the acquisition of knowledge. The Vaisheshika school put its faith in both heaven and salvation. The Mimamsa school strongly recommended the performance of Vedic sacrifices. The theory of karma came to be linked to Vedanta philosophy. Charvaka emphasized the value of intimate contact with the world, and established a lack of belief in the other world. By the fifth century ad, materialistic philosophy was dominated by the exponents of idealistic philosophy who constantly criticized it and recommended the performance of rituals and cultivation of spiritualism as a path to salvation.

Keywords:   Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa, Vedanta, Charvaka, materialistic philosophy, idealistic philosophy, salvation

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