According to Radha Kamal Mukherjee, science began in India with a contempt and repudiation of the country's spiritual and cultural values. At the turn of the twentieth century, the British Empire reached its pinnacle in India even as the seeds of decolonization were sprouting. During the last years of the Raj, some flickers of ‘constructive imperialism’ came, albeit too late. Nationalism was gathering momentum, while Indian leaders and the government debated about the role of science and technology in development. Aside from public health, education, agriculture, and medical services were touted as ‘Nation Building Services’. This chapter examines science in India during British rule, the government's cautious yet firm approach towards industrialization, Mahatma Gandhi's views on science, and the end of dualism. It also discusses British scientist A.V. Hill's visit to India on an official mission to advise and report on the state of scientific research in the country.
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